Strain number NIES-4119  
Phylum Dinophyta  
Class Dinophyceae  
Scientific name Gambierdiscus australes Chinian & M.A.Faust  
Former name  
Common name Dinoflagellate  
Locality (Date of collection) Kutsu, Susaki, Kochi, Japan (2008-09-11)  
Latitude / Longitude 33.393889 / 133.341389 
Habitat (Isolation source) Marine (Seaweed)  
History < Nishimura, Tomohiro; Adachi, Masao  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Nishimura, Tomohiro (2008-09-**)  
Identified by Nishimura, Tomohiro; Adachi, Masao  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Non-axenic  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  MNK  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  10 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  45 D  
Gene information 18S rRNA ( AB764303 ) , 28S rRNA ( AB765920 )  
Cell size (min - max) 55 - 75 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics Toxicity ; maitotoxin (+) ; Attached  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : S080911_1  
Remarks Toxicity 
Pisapia, F., Sibat, .M., Herrenknecht, C., Lhaut, K., Gaiani, G., Ferron, P., Fessard, V., Fraga, S., Nascimento, S. M., Litaker, R. W., Holland, W. C., Roullier, C., Hess, P. 2017 Maitotoxin-4, a novel MTX analog produced by Gambierdiscus excentricus. Mar. Drugs, 15, 220 (article ID).
Keywords: Gambierdiscus excentricus; maitotoxin-4; bioguided fractionation; size-exclusion chromatography (LH-20); neuro-2a (N2a) assay; LC-HRMS/MS (Q-Tof 6550); LC-LRMS/MS (API4000 QTrap)
Strain(s): 41184119 
PubMed: 28696398
DOI: 10.3390/md15070220

Lyu, Y., Richlen, M, L. Sehein, T. R, Chinain, M., Adachi, M., Nishimura, T., Xu, Y., Parsons, M. L., Smith, T. B., Zheng, T., Anderson, D. M. 2017 LSU rDNA based RFLP assays for the routine identification of Gambierdiscus species. Harmful Algae, 66, 20-28.
Keywords: Gambierdiscus; Ciguatera; RFLP; LSU rDNA
Strain(s): 4119 
PubMed: 28602250
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.04.009

Nishimura, T., Hariganeya, N., Tawong, W., Sakanari, H., Yamaguchi, H., Adachi, M. 2016 Quantitative PCR assay for detection and enumeration of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Gonyaulacales) in coastal areas of Japan. Harmful Algae, 52, 11-22.
Keywords: Ciguatera fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate; Gambierdiscus; Japan: Quantitative PCR assay
Strain(s): 411841194120 
PubMed: 28073467
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2015.11.018

Yoshimatsu, T., Tie, C., Yamaguchi, H., Funaki, H., Honma, C., Tanaka, K., Adachi, M. 2016 The effects of light intensity on the growth of Japanese Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae, 60, 107-115.
Keywords: Ciguatera; Gambierdiscus; Growth; Ligh
Strain(s): 411841194120 
PubMed: 28073553
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2016.10.009

Yoshimatsu, T., Yamaguchi, H., Iwamoto, H., Nishimura, T., Adachi, M. 2014 Effects of temperature, salinity and their interaction on growth of Japanese Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae, 35, 29-37.
Keywords: Ciguatera; Japanese Gambierdiscus; Growth; Temperature; Salinity
Strain(s): 411841194120 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2014.03.007

Nishimura, T., Sato, S., Tawong, W., Sakanari, H., Uehara, K., Shah, M.M., Suda, S., Yasumoto, T., Taira, Y., Yamaguchi, H., Adachi, M. 2013 Genetic diversity and distribution of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in coastal areas of Japan. PLoS One, 8, e60882 (article ID).
Strain(s): 411841194120 
PubMed: 23593339
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060882

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