Strain number NIES-227  
Phylum Chlorophyta  
Class Trebouxiophyceae  
Scientific name Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck var. vulgaris  
Former name  
Common name Green alga  
Locality (Date of collection) Japan  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source)  
History < IAM (1983);  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Watanabe, Atsushi  
Identified by Fukushima, Hiroshi; Confirmed by DNA sequencing at NIES  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2020 Oct]]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  C (agar)  
Temperature:  20 (25) C
Light intensity:  4-10 (14-16) µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  3 M (14 D)  
Gene information 16S rRNA ( AJ242754 AJ242771 ) , 18S rRNA ( AJ242756 AB488575 ) , 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ( AB162910 ) , 28S rRNA ( AB237642 ) , CO1 ( AB011523 ) , psaA ( AB260919 ) , rbcL ( AB260909 )  
Cell size (min - max) 2 - 10 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM C-30
Remarks Cryopreserved; Axenic 
Jiang, R., Qin, L., Feng, S., Huang, D., Wang, Z., Zhu, S. 2021 The joint effect of ammonium and pH on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and ammonium removal in artificial liquid digestate. Bioresour. Technol., 325, 124690 (article ID).
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; Ammonium; pH; Free ammonia; Cell components; Extracellular organic matters
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 1016/j.biortech.2021.124690

Delrue, F., Cerqueira, M. R. D., Compadre, A., Alvarez, P., Fleury, G., Escoffier, C., Sassi, J. F. 2021 Hydroponic farm wastewater treatment using an indigenous consortium. Processes, 9, 519 (article ID).
Strain(s): 2272152 
DOI: 10.3390/pr9030519

Jeong, S.-Y., Son, H.-J. 2021 Effects of mycosubtilin homolog algicides from a marine bacterium, Bacillus sp. SY-1, against the harmful algal bloom species Cochlodinium polykrikoides. J. Microbiol., 59, 389-400.
Keywords: algicide; Bacillus sp. SY-1; Cochlodinium polykrikoides; harmful algal bloom; mycosubtilin
Strain(s): 23227238298316446682 
PubMed: 33779952
DOI: 10.1007/s12275-021-1086-8

Maeda, I., Kudou, S., Iwai, S. 2021 Efficient isolation and cultivation of endosymbiotic Chlorella from Paramecium bursaria on agar plates by co-culture with yeast cells. J. Microbiol. Methods, 186, 106254 (article ID).
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 34052226
DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2021.106254

Shibata, A., Takahashi, F., Imamura, N., Kasahara, M. 2021 Characteristics of maltose transport system in the endosymbiont Chlorella variabilis of Paramecium bursaria. Phycol. Res., ,
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12461

Ray, A., Nayak, M., Ghosh, A. 2021 A review on co-culturing of microalgae: A greener strategy towards sustainable biofuels production. Sci. Total Environ., 802, 149765 (article ID).
Keywords: Microalgae-fungi; Microalgae-yeast; Microalgae-bacteria; Co-cultivation; Biomass; Lipid
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 34454141
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149765

Feng, S., Liu, F., Zhu, S., Feng, P., Wang, Z., Yuan, Z., Shang, C., Chen, H. 2020 Performance of a microalgal-bacterial consortium system for the treatmentof dairy-derived liquid digestate and biomass production. Bioresour. Technol., 306, 123101 (article ID).
Keywords: Liquid digestate; C. vulgaris; Pollutant removal; Biomass production; Bacterial community analysis
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 32197188
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123101

Jo, S.-W., Do, J.-M., Kang, N.-S., Park, J. M., Lee, J. H., Kim, H. S., Hong, J. W., Yoon, H.-S. 2020 Isolation, identification, and biochemical characteristics of a cold-tolerant Chlorella vulgaris KNUA007 isolated from King George Island, Antarctica. J. Mar. Sci. Eng., 8, 935 (article ID).
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; cold-tolerant; PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids); calorific value
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.3390/jmse8110935

Zhu, S., Qin, L., Feng, P., Shang, C., Wang, Z., Yuan, Z. 2019 Treatment of low C/N ratio wastewater and biomass production using co-culture of Chlorella vulgaris and activated sludge in a batch photobioreactor. Bioresour. Technol., 274, 313-320.
Keywords: Microalgae; Activated sludge; Co-culture system; Nutrient recovery; Biomass valorization
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 30529478
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.10.034

Mathiot, C., Ponge, P., Gallard, B., Sassi, J.-F., Delrue, F., Le Moigne, N. 2019 Microalgae starch-based bioplastics: screening of ten strains and plasticization of unfractionated microalgae by extrusion. Carbohydr. Polym., 208/, 142-151.
Keywords: Microalgae; Bioplastics; Starch; Plasticization; Extrusion
Strain(s): 942272152217321952280 
PubMed: 30658785
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.12.057

Qin, L., Wei, D., Wang, Z., Alam, M. A. 2019 Advantage assessment of mixed culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Yarrowia lipolytica for treatment of liquid digestate of yeast industry and cogeneration of biofuel feedstock. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 187, 856–869.
Keywords: Mixed culture; Chlorella vulgaris; Yarrowia lipolytica; Yeast industrial wastewater; Liquid digestate
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 30088243
DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2854-8

Shen, X.-F., Qin, Q.-W., Yan, S.-K., Huang, J.-L., Liu, K., Zhou, S.-B. 2019 Biodiesel production from Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen starvation in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic cultures. J. Appl. Phycol., 31, 1589–1596.
Keywords: Fatty acid; Chlorella vulgaris; Chlorophyta; Heterotrophic cultivation; Mixotrophic cultivation; Nitrogen starvation; iTRAQ analysis
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-019-01765-1

Zhu, S., Feng, S., Xu, Z., Qin, L., Shang, C., Feng, P., Wang, Z., Yuan, Z. 2019 Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris on unsterilized dairy-derived liquid digestate for simultaneous biofuels feedstock production and pollutant removal. Bioresour. Technol., 285, 121353 (article ID).
Keywords: Liquid digestate; Biomass production; Lipid productivity; Wastewater treatment; Microbial community analysis
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 31005641
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121353

Iwai, S., Fujita, K., Takanishi, Y., Fukushi, K. 2019 Photosynthetic endosymbionts benefit from host’s phagotrophy, including predation on potential competitors. Curr. Biol., 29, 3114-3119.
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 31495588
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.07.074

Liu, L., Chen, J., Lim, P-E., Wei, D. 2018 Dual-species cultivation of microalgae and yeast for enhanced biomass and microbial lipid production. J. Appl. Phycol., 30, 2997–3007.
Keywords: Chlorella; Oleaginous yeast; Artificial consortium; Mixed culture; Microbial lipid production
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-018-1526-y

Qin, L., Liu, L., Wang, Z., Chen, W., Wei, D. 2018 Efficient resource recycling from liquid digestate by microalgae-yeast mixed culture and the assessment of key gene transcription related to nitrogen assimilation in microalgae. Bioresour. Technol., 264, 90-97.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; Digestate; Mixed culture; Yarrowia lipolytica
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 29793118
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.05.061

Nagarajan, D., Lee, D.-J., Chang, J. 2018 Heterotrophic microalgal cultivation. In Bioreactors for microbial biomass and energy conversion, Eds. by Liao Q., Chang J., Herrmann C., Xia A., Springer, Singapore, pp. 117-160.
Strain(s): 1442272280 
DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-7677-0_4

Suzuki, N., Sanada, T., Terashima, C., Suzuki, T., Arai, T., Saitou, S., Kawashima, T., Mizutani, A., Saitou, T., Nakata, K., Katsumata, K., Kondo, T., Yuasa, M., Fujishima, A. 2017 Systematic studies of TiO2-based photocatalysts anti-algal effects on Chlorella vulgaris. J. Appl. Electrochem., 47, 197-203.
Keywords: Titanium dioxide; Photocatalyst; Anti-algal effect; Hydrogen peroxide
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1007/s10800-016-1031-4

Adachi, Y., Yokoyama, S.-I., Tanahashi, M. 2017 Development of antibacterial and antialgae product using wood biomass distillation (II). Bull. Ind. Technol. Center Gifu Prefectural Govt., 11, 9-11 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 31227 

Shen, X.-F., Liu, J.-J., Chauhan, A. S., Hu, H., Ma, L.-L., Lam, P.K.S., Zeng, R. J. 2016 Combining nitrogen starvation with sufficient phosphorus supply for enhanced biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris fed on acetate. Algal Res., 17, 261-267.
Keywords: Heterotrophic cultivation; Lipid productivity; Biodiesel; Microalgae; Nutrient regulation; pH control
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.05.018

Shen, X.-F., Chu, F.-F., Lam, P.K.S., Zeng, R.J. 2015 Biosynthesis of high yield fatty acids from Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 under nitrogen starvation stress during heterotrophic cultivation. Water Res., 81, 294-300.
Keywords: Microalgae; Nitrogen starvation; Heterotrophic cultivation; Fatty acid content; Fatty acid yield; Glucose
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 26081436
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.06.003

Ioki, M., Ohkoshi, M., Nakajima, N., Nakahira-Yanaka, Y., Watanabe, M. M. 2012 Isolation of herbicide-resistant mutants of Botryococcus braunii. Bioresour. Technol., 109, 300-303.
Keywords: Botryococcus braunii; Paraquat; Methyl viologen; Basta; Glufosinate
Strain(s): 351192272302235 
PubMed: 21906932
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.101

Ueda, H., Otsuka, S., Senoo, K. 2010 Bacterial communities constructed in artificial consortia of bacteria and Chlorella vulgaris. Microbes Environ., 25, 36-40.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; algal-bacterial association; bacteria; co-cultivation; consortium
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 21576850
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME09177

Kato, Y., Imamura, N., 2008 Effect of calcium ion on uptake of amino acids by symbiotic Chlorella F36-ZK isolated from Japanese Paramecium bursaria. Plant Sci., 174, 88-96.
Keywords: Paramecium bursaria; Chlorella; Calcium; Divalent cation; Amino acid transport; Symbiosis
Strain(s): 22721572540 
DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2007.10.001

Hoshina, R., Imamura, N. 2008 Eu-Chlorella large subunit rDNA sequences and group I introns in ribosomal DNA of the paramecian symbiotic alga NC64A. Phycol. Res., 56, 21-32.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; group I intron; intron phylogeny; intron transposition; large subunit ribosomal DNA; NC64A
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2008.00481.x

Kato, Y., Ueno, S., Imamura, N. 2006 Studies on the nitrogen utilization of endosymbiotic algae isolated from Japanese Paramecium bursaria. Plant Sci., 170, 481-486.
Keywords: Endosymbiont; Paramecium bursaria; Nitrogen utilization; Chlorella
Strain(s): 22725402541 
DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.09.018

Shitanda, I., Takada, K., Sakai, Y., Tatsuma, T. 2005 Compact amperometric algal biosensors for the evaluation of water toxicity. Anal. Chim. Acta, 530, 191-197.
Keywords: amperometric biosensor; Chlorella vulgaris; algae; alginate gel; polyion complex; herbicides
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2004.09.073

Oshimi, M., Fujimoto, N., Ohnishi, A., Suzuki, M., Akiba, M., Kunikane, S. 2005 Isolation of bacteria lysing musty odor producing alga Phormidium tenue and its lytic characteristics. J. Jpn. Soc. Wat. Environ., 28, 379-384 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: alga-lytic bacteria; musty odor; Phormidium tenue; Pseudomonas KA6
Strain(s): 96211227244298512817 
DOI: 10.2965/jswe.28.379

Chu, C. Y., Liao, W. R., Huang, R., Lin, L. P. 2004 Haemagglutinating and antibiotic activities of freshwater microalgae. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 20, 817–825.
Keywords: Antibiotic activity; erythrocytes; freshwater microalgae; haemagglutination
Strain(s): 22622721592163216521692175218922082211221322142229223122332240224122432247224832773284 
DOI: 10.1007/s11274-004-8712-6

Sato, R., Fujishima, H., Itabashi, Y. 2003 Analysis of algal phosphatidylglycerols by chiral phase high-performane liquid chromatography. Bull. Fish. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 54, 7-12 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: phosphatidylglycerol; diastereomer; Enteromorpha sp.; Chlorella vulgaris; Heterosigma akashiwo; spinach; parsley; green tea; chiral phase HPLC; 3,5-dinitrophenylurethane
Strain(s): 227 

Ando, T., Otsuka, S., Nishiyama, M., Sendo, K., Watanabe, M. M., Matsumoto, S. 2003 Toxic effects of dichloromethane and trichloroethlene on the growth of planktonic green algae, Chlorella vulgaris NIES227, Selenastrum capricornutum NIES35, and Volvulina steinii NIES545. Microbes Environ., 18, 43-46.
Keywords: algal growth potential (AGP); bioindicator; dichloromethane; organic solvents; trichloroethlene
Strain(s): 35227545 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.18.43

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 19212223242526272829303132333435363738394041444546505152535455565758596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123124125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147148150151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194195197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268271287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310311312313329334336337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Kodani, S., Imoto, A., Mitsutani, A., Murakami, M. 2002 Isolation and identification of the antialgal compound, harmane (1-methyl-B-carboline), produced by the algicidal bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. K44-1. J. Appl. Phycol., 14, 109-114.
Keywords: Algicidal bacteria; Antialgal compound; Cyanobacteria; Harmane; Pseudomonas sp.; Water bloom
Strain(s): 1923102227299446506 
DOI: 10.1023/A:1019533414018

Kuramoto, T., Iwamoto, K., Izumi, M., Kirihata, M., Yoshizako, F. 1999 Asymmetric reduction of ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate by Chlorella. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 63, 598-601.
Keywords: Chlorella; asymmetric reduction; ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate; (2S, 3S)-ethyl 2-methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate; (2S, 3R)-ethyl 2-methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate
Strain(s): 226227 
PubMed: 10227152
DOI: 10.1271/bbb.63.598

Inagaki, Y., Ehara, M., Watanabe, K. I., Hayashi-Ishimaru, Y., Ohama, T. 1998 Directionally evolving genetic code: the UGA codon from stop to tryptophan in mitochondria. J. Mol. Evol., 47, 378-384.
Keywords: COXI phylogenetic tree; UGA codon; deviant genetic code; directional codon reassignment
Strain(s): 12227274 
PubMed: 9767683
DOI: 10.1007/PL00006395

Watanabe, K. I., Ehara, M., Inagaki, Y., Ohama, T. 1998 Distinctive origins of group I introns found in the COXI genes of three green algae. Gene, 213, 1-7.
Keywords: Group I intron; Chlorella vulgaris; Scenedesmus quadricauda; Protosiphon botryoides; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I; intron homing; frameshift
Strain(s): 96227 
DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1119(98)00235-2

Hayashi-Ishimaru, Y., Ohama, T., Kawatsu, Y., Nakamura, K., Osawa, S. 1996 UAG is a sense codon in several chlorophycean mitochondria. Curr. Genet., 30, 29-33.
Keywords: deviant genetic code; COXI; Chlorophyceaen mitochondria; release factor
Strain(s): 96209227415 
PubMed: 8662206
DOI: 10.1007/s002940050096

Liu, C. B., Lin, L. P., Su, Y. C. 1996 Utilization of Chlorella vulgaris for uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. J. Chin. Agr. Chem. Soc., 34, 331-343 (in Chinese with English summary).
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; heavy metals; nitrogen; phosphorus
Strain(s): 227 

Nozaki, H., Katagiri, M., Nakagawa, M., Aizawa, K., Watanabe, M. M. 1995 Taxonomic re-examination of the two strains labeled Chlorella in the Microbial Culture Collection at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-Collection). Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 11, 11-18.
Keywords: Chlorella; Graesiella emersonii comb. nov.; green algae; morphology; taxonomy
Strain(s): 226227686687688689690 

Kasai, F., Hatakeyama, S. 1993 Herbicide susceptibility in two green algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Selenastrum capricornutum. Chemosphere, 27, 899-904.
Strain(s): 35227 
DOI: 10.1016/0045-6535(93)90019-2

Morimoto, T., Murakami, N., Nagatsu, A., Sakakibara, J. 1993 Studies on glycolipids. VII. Isolation of two new sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols from the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1545-1548.
Keywords: sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG); glyceroglycolipid; green alga; Chlorella vulgaris; branched fatty acid
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1248/cpb.41.1545

Watanabe, Y., Ohmura, N., Saiki, H. 1992 Microbial CO2 fixation. 2. Isolation and determination of cultural characteristics of Chlorella strains which function under CO2 enriched atmosphere. CRIEPI Kenkyû-Hôkoku, U92014, 1-21 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: climate change; CO2; CO2 fixation; microalgae; Chlorella
Strain(s): 27459294122158204226227 

Omura, T., Umita, T., Aizawa, J., Komatsu, Y., Ishizaki, M., Onuma, M. 1991 Accumulation of extracellular non-volatile organic acids in batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa. Jpn. J. Water Poll. Res., 14, 615-623 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; Microcystis aeruginosa; batch culture; non-volatile organic acids; dissolved organic carbon
Strain(s): 87227 

Yoshizako, F., Nishimura, A., Chubachi, M., Horii, T., Ueno, T. 1991 Bioconversion of cyclohexaneacetic acid to monohydroxycyclo-hexaneacetic acids by Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 72, 343-346.
Strain(s): 226227 

Kawanobe, K. 1990 A report in the completion of the research work [Chôsa kenkyû syûryô hôkoku]. Unpublished report in Kankyô Hozen Kyôkai, 3 pp. (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 35227 

Iehara, M. 1990 Kinetic analysis of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Biotech. Bioeng., 36, 198-206.
Strain(s): 227 
PubMed: 18595068
DOI: 10.1002/bit.260360212

Ubekôsan Co. Ltd. 1988 Effects of UR-158 on the algal mortality [UR-158 no sassôkôka]. Unpublished report in Ubekôsan Co. Ltd, 3 pp. (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 32227 

Yamada, T., Sakaguchi, K. 1982 Comparative studies on Chlorella cell walls: Induction of protoplast formation. Arch. Mikrobiol., 132, 10-13.
Strain(s): 2276862159216321662168217121892352 
DOI: 10.1007/BF00690809

Oh-hama, T., Senger, H. 1978 Spectral effectiveness in chlorophyll and 5-amino levulinic acid formation during regreening of glucose-bleached cells of Chlorella protothecoides. Plant Cell Physiol., 19, 1295-1299.
Keywords: ALA synthesis; blue light effect; Chlorella protothecoides; chlorophyll formation
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a075711

Ichimura, T., Itoh, T. 1977 17. Preservation methods of microalgae (I) [17. Bisaisôrui no hozonhô (I)]. In Preservation methods of microorganisms [Biseibutsu Hozonhô], Ed. by Nei, T., University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 355-373 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 19212223242728303132333436373839404144454647484950122123127131144152173175179180181182183185198200203206217226227241266267268271295309310334338379436448450455527 

Maruyama, K. 1977 Classification of Chlorella strain by infrared absorption spectra of cell samples. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 90, 67-77.
Strain(s): 2262276856872151216321702175 
DOI: 10.1007/BF02489470

Maruyama, K. 1977 Classification of Chlorella strains by cell appearance and group sera. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 90, 57-66.
Strain(s): 2262276852151216321702175 
DOI: 10.1007/BF02489469

Watanabe, A. 1960 List of algal strains in collection at the Institute of Applied Microbiology, University of Tokyo. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 6, 283-292.
Strain(s): 192122232425262829374749226227 

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