Strain number NIES-3377  
Phylum Rhodophyta  
Class Cyanidiophyceae  
Scientific name Cyanidioschyzon merolae De Luca, Taddei & Varano  
Former name  
Common name Red alga  
Locality (Date of collection) Sardinia Isl., Italy (locality of wild type strain (NIES-1332))  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Hot spring (Water)  
History < Toda, Kyoko  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Toda, Kyoko  
Identified by  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  M-Allen  
Temperature:  37 C
Light intensity:  10-11 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  6 M  
Gene information Mitochondria DNA ( D89861 ) , Nuclear DNA (chromosome 1-20) ( AP006483-AP006502 ) , Plastid DNA ( AB002583 ) , chromosome ubassaugned contigs ( AP006600-AP006614 ) , aladh ( AB159599 ) , atpC ( AB159600 ) , gnd ( AB159595 AB159596 ) , Hsp70 ( AB095185 ) , Hsp90 ( AB095179 AB095186 ) , pgk ( AB159598 ) , psbO ( AB159597 ) , RPB1 ( AB095180 AB095187 ) , RpS8b ( AB095181 AB095188 ) , TPI ( AB095182 AB095189 ) , VatA ( AB095183 AB095190 ) , VatB ( AB095184 AB095191 )  
Cell size (min - max) 2 - 4 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics Planktonic ; Thermophilic (opt. 40-45℃() ; Acidophilic (pH 1.5-2.4) ; Phototaxic ; Genome decoded strain  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : 10D  
Remarks Cryopreserved; Purified strain from NIES-1332; Fragile species to temperature changes; Axenic 
Chiang, Y.-H., Huang, Y.-J., Fu, H.-Y. 2022 Identifcation of multiple nonphotochemical quenching processes in the extremophilic red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Photosynth. Res., 154, 125–141.
Keywords: Energy spillover; Energetic decoupling; Functional antenna size
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/s11120-022-00963-2

Yoshida, C., Murakami, M., Niwa, A., Takeya, M., Osanai, T. 2021 Efficient extraction and preservation of thermotolerant phycocyanins from red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 131, 161-167.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Microalgae; Phycocyanin; Protein extraction; Red algae
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 33109478
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2020.09.021

Jong, L. W., Fujiwara, T., Hirooka, S., Miyagishima, S. 2021 Cell size for commitment to cell division and number of successive cell divisions in cyanidialean red algae. Protoplasma, 258, 1103–1118.
Keywords: Cell cycle; Cyanidiales; Cyanidioschyzon; Cyanidium; Galdieria; Multiple fission
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 33675395
DOI: 10.1007/s00709-021-01628-y

Miyagishimi, S., Tanaka, K. 2021 The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae—The simplest model of a photosynthetic eukaryote. Plant Cell Physiol., 62, 926–941.
Keywords: Cyanidiales; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Photosynthetic eukaryotes; Red algae
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 33836072
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcab052

Tanaka, N., Mogi, Y., Fujiwara, T., Yabe, K., Toyama, Y., Higashiyama, T., Yoshida, Y. 2021 CZON-cutter - a CRISPR-Cas9 system for multiplexed organelle imaging in a simple unicellular alga. J. Cell Sci., 134, jcs258948 (article ID).
Keywords: CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing; Multiplexed organelle imaging; Rhodophyta; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Organelle division; Cell cycle
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 34633046
DOI: 10.1242/jcs.258948

Liu, S.-L., Chiang, Y.-R., Yoon, H. S., Fu, H.-Y. 2020 Comparative genome analysis reveals Cyanidiococcus gen. nov., a new extremophilic red algal genus sister to Cyanidioschyzon (Cyanidioschyzonaceae, Rhodophyta). J. Phycol., 56, 1428-1442.
Strain(s): 33774390 
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.13056

Cho, Y.-L., Lee, Y.-C., Hsu, L.-C., Wang, C.-C., Chen, P.-C., Liu, S.-L., Teah, H.-Y., Liu, Y.-T., Tzou, Y.-M. 2020 Molecular mechanisms for Pb removal by Cyanidiales: a potential biomaterial applied in thermo-acidic conditions. Chem. Eng. J., 401, 125828 (article ID).
Keywords: Cyanidiales; Thermoacidophilic; Lead; Speciation; XAS; Protein secondary structure
Strain(s): 5513377 
DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2020.125828

Hirooka, S., Tomita, R., Fujiwara, T., Ohnuma, M., Kuroiwa, H., Kuroiwa, T., Miyagishima, S. 2020 Efficient open cultivation of cyanidialean red algae in acidified seawater. Sci Rep, 10, 13794 (article ID).
Strain(s): 21373377 
PubMed: 32839467
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-70398-z

Fujiwara, T., Hirooka, S., Mukai, M., Ohbayashi, R., Kanesaki, Y., Watanabe, S., Miyagishima, S. 2019 Integration of a Galdieria plasma membrane sugar transporter enables heterotrophic growth of the obligate photoautotrophic red alga Cynanidioschyzon merolae. Plant Direct, 3, e00134 (article ID).
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Galdieria sulphuraria; heterotroph; mixotroph; plasma membrane sugar transporter
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 31245772
DOI: 10.1002/pld3.134

Zienkiewicz, M., Krupnik, T., Drożak, A., Kania, K. 2019 PEG-mediated, stable, nuclear and chloroplast transformation of Cyanidioschizon merolae. Bio-protocol, 9, e3355 (article ID).
Strain(s): 13323377 
DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.3355

Zienkiewicz, M., Krupnik, T., Drożak, A., Wasilewska, W., Golke, A., Romanowska, E. 2018 Deletion of psbQ’ gene in Cyanidioschyzon merolae reveals the function of extrinsic PsbQ’ in PSII. Plant Mol. Biol., 96, 135–149.
Keywords: Stable red algae nuclear transformation; DTA toxin; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Chloramphenicol; acetyltransferase; PEG; PsbQ’; PSII mutants; PSII extrinsic protein deletion
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 29196904
DOI: 10.1007/s11103-017-0685-6

Miyagishima, S. & Wei, J. L. 2018 Procedures for cultivation, observation, and conventional experiments in Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In Cyanidioschyzon merolae: A New Model Eukaryote for Cell and Organelle Biology, Eds. by Kuroiwa, T., Miyagishima, S., Matsunaga, S., Sato, N., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, K., Misumi, O., Springer Singapore, pp. 31-41.
Keywords: Cell cycle; Cell division; Cyanidiales; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Red algae; Synchronous culture
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-6101-1_3

Fjiwara, T. & Ohnuma, M. 2018 Procedures for transformation and their applications in Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In Cyanidioschyzon merolae: A New Model Eukaryote for Cell and Organelle Biology, Eds. by Kuroiwa, T., Miyagishima, S., Matsunaga, S., Sato, N., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, K., Misumi, O., Springer Singapore, pp. 87-103.
Keywords: Transformation; Homologous recombination; Gene targeting; biotechnology; Algae; Genetic engineering
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-6101-1_7

Miyagishima, S., Wei, J. L., Nozaki, H., Hirooka, S. 2018 Cyadidiales: Evolution and habitats. In Cyanidioschyzon merolae: A New Model Eukaryote for Cell and Organelle Biology, Eds. by Kuroiwa, T., Miyagishima, S., Matsunaga, S., Sato, N., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, K., Misumi, O., Springer Singapore, pp. 3-15.
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-6101-1_1

Yoshida, Y., Imoto, Y., Yagisawa, F. 2018 Isolation of dividing organelles from Cyanidioschyzon merolae cells. In Cyanidioschyzon merolae: A New Model Eukaryote for Cell and Organelle Biology, Eds. by Kuroiwa, T., Miyagishima, S., Matsunaga, S., Sato, N., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, K., Misumi, O., Springer Singapore, pp. 43-57.
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-6101-1_4

Nozaki, H., Kanesaki, Y., Matsuzaki, M., Hirooka, S. 2018 The 100%-complete nuclear and organellar genome sequences of the ultrasmall red algal species Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. In Cyanidioschyzon merolae: A New Model Eukaryote for Cell and Organelle Biology, Eds. by Kuroiwa, T., Miyagishima, S., Matsunaga, S., Sato, N., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, K., Misumi, O., Springer Singapore, pp. 61-72.
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-6101-1_5

Imamura, S., Nomura, Y., Takemura, T., Pancha, I., Taki, K., Toguchi, K., Tozawa, Y., Tanaka K. 2018 The checkpoint kinase TOR (target of rapamycin) regulates expression of a nuclear‐encoded chloroplast RelA‐SpoT homolog (RSH) and modulates chloroplast ribosomal RNA synthesis in a unicellular red alga. Plant J., 94, 327-339.
Keywords: RelA-SpoT homolog; ppGpp; red alga; ribosomal RNA; target of rapamycin
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 29441718
DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13859

Zienkiewicz, M., Krupnik, T., Drożak, A., Golke, A., Romanowska, E. 2017 Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase a new selectable marker in stable nuclear transformation of the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Protoplasma, 254, 587-596.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) stable genome transformation
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 26715590
DOI: 10.1007/s00709-015-0936-9

Fujiwara, T., Ohnuma, M., Kuroiwa, T., Ohbayashi, R., Hirooka, S., Miyagishima, S-Y. 2017 Development of a double nuclear gene-targeting method by two-step transformation based on a newly established chloramphenicol-selection system in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Front. Plant Sci., 8, e343 (article ID).
Keywords: algae, plants; photosynthetic eukaryotes; genetic modification; multiple transformation; chloramphenicol; CAT selection marker
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 28352279
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00343

Kawase, Y.2, Imamura, S., Tanaka, K. 2017 A MYB-type transcription factor, MYB2, represses light-harvesting protein genes in Cyanidioschyzon merolae. FEBS Lett., 591, 2439-2448.
Keywords: dark acclimation; MYB-type transcription factor; phycobilisome
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 28748638
DOI: 10.1002/1873-3468.12763

Rademacher, N., Wrobel, T. J., Rossoni, A. W., Kurz, S., Bräutigam, A., Weber, A. P. M., Eisenhut, M. 2017 Transcriptional response of the extremophile red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolaee to changes in CO2 concentrations. J. Plant Physiol., 217, 49-56.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; RNA-seq; CO2 limitation; Photorespiration
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 28705662
DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2017.06.014

Sumiya, N., Fujiwara, T., Era, A., Miyagishima, SY. 2016 Chloroplast division checkpoint in eukaryotic algae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 113, E7629-E7638 (article ID).
Keywords: chloroplast division; algal cell cycle; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Cyanophora paradoxa
Strain(s): 5473377 
PubMed: 27837024
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1612872113

Kuroiwa, T., Ohnuma, M., Imoto, Y., Misumi, O., Nagata, N., Miyakawa, I., Fujishima, M., Yagisawa, F., Kuroiwa, H. 2016 Genome size of the ultrasmall unicellular freshwater green alga, Medakamo hakoo 311, as determined by staining with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole after microwave oven treatments: II. Comparison with Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (n, 2n), and Chlorella variabilis. Cytologia, 81, 69-76.
Keywords: Ultrasmall genome size; Medakamo hakoo; Saccharyomyces cerevisiae; Chlorella variabilis; DAPI staining; Microwave oven
Strain(s): 33774000 
DOI: 10.1508/cytologia.81.69

Fujiwara, T., Kanesaki, Y., Hirooka, S., Era, A., Sumiya, N., Yoshikawa, H., Tanaka, K., Miyagishima, S. 2015 A nitrogen source-dependent inducible and repressible gene expression system in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Front. Plant Sci., 6, 657 (article ID).
Keywords: algae; plants; homologous recombination; conditional knockdown; gene inducible system
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 26379685
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00657

Kuroiwa, T., Ohnuma, M., Nozaki, H., Imoto, Y., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H. 2015 Cytological evidence of cell-nuclear genome size of a new ultra-small unicellular freshwater green alga, “Medakamo hakoo” strain M-hakoo 311 I. Comparison with Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Ostreococcus tauri. Cytologia, 80, 143-150.
Keywords: Ultra-small alga; Chlorophyte M. hakoo; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Ostreococcus tauri; Genome size; Cytochemistry
Strain(s): 267333774000 
DOI: 10.1508/cytologia.80.143

Miyashita, S., Groombridge, A. S., Fujii, S., Minoda, A., Takatsu, A., Hioki, A., Chiba, K., Inagaki, K. 2014 Highly efficient single-cell analysis of microbial cells by time-resolved inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 29, 1598-1606.
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1039/C4JA00040D

Yoshida, Y., Fujiwara, T., Imoto, Y., Yoshida, M., Ohnuma, M., Hirooka, S., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Kato, S., Matsunaga, S., Kuroiwa, T. 2013 The kinesin-like protein TOP promotes Aurora localisation and induces mitochondrial, chloroplast and nuclear division. J. Cell Sci., 126, 2392-2400.
Keywords: Cell-division cycle, Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Kinesin; Mitochondrial division; Plastid division
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 23549784
DOI: 10.1242/jcs.116798

Imoto, Y., Kuroiwa, H., Yoshida, Y., Ohnuma, M., Fujiwara, T., Yoshida, M., Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Hirooka, S., Miyagishima, S.Y., Misumi, O., Kawano, S., Kuroiwa, T. 2013 Single-membrane-bound peroxisome division revealed by isolation of dynamin-based machinery. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 110, 9583-9588.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 23696667
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1303483110

Miyagishima, S., Suzuki, K., Okazaki, K., Kabeya, Y. 2012 Expression of the nucleus-encoded chloroplast division genes and proteins regulated by the algal cell cycle. Mol. Biol. Evol., 29, 2957-2970.
Keywords: cell cycle; chloroplast division; endosymbiosis; endosymbiotic gene transfer
Strain(s): 296484547133221703377 
PubMed: 22490821
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mss102

Yoshida, Y., Miyagishima, S.-Y., Kuroiwa H., Kuroiwa, T. 2012 The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 15, 714-721.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 22824141
DOI: 10.1016/j.pbi.2012.07.002

Kanesaki, Y., Imamura, S., Minoda, A., Tanaka, K. 2012 External light conditions and internal cell cycle phases coordinate accumulation of chloroplast and mitochondrial transcripts in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. DNA Res., 19, 289-303.
Keywords: cell cycle; clustering analysis; Cyanidioschyzon; organelle; transcriptome
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 22518007
DOI: 10.1093/dnares/dss013

Ohnuma, M., Kuroiwa, T., Tanaka, K. 2011 Optimization of cryopreservation conditions for the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. J. Gen. Appl. Micobiol.,, 57, 137-143.
Keywords: cryoinjury; cryopreservation; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; unicellular red alga
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 21817825
DOI: 10.2323/jgam.57.137

Takaichi, S. 2011 Carotenoids in algae: distributions, biosyntheses and functions. Mar. Drugs, 9, 1101-1118.
Keywords: algal phylogeny; biosynthesis of carotenoids; distribution of carotenoids; function of carotenoids; pigment-protein complex
Strain(s): 14413323377 
PubMed: 21747749
DOI: 10.3390/md9061101

Yoshida, Y., Kuroiwa, H., Misumi, O., Yoshida, M., Ohnuma, M., Fujiwara, T., Yagisawa, F., Hirooka, S., Imoto, Y., Matsushita, K., Kawano, S., Kuroiwa, T. 2010 Chloroplasts divide by contraction of a bundle of nanofilaments consisting of polyglucan. Science, 329, 949-953.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 20724635
DOI: 10.1126/science.1190791

Fujiwara, T., Kuroiwa, H., Yagisawa, F., Ohnuma, M., Yoshida, Y., Yoshida, M., Nishida, K., Misumi, O., Watanabe, S., Tanaka, K., Kuroiwa, T. 2010 The coiled-coil protein VIG1 is essential for tethering vacuoles to mitochondria during vacuole inheritance of Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant Cell, 22, 772-781.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 20348431
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.109.070227

Imamura, S., Terashita, M., Ohnuma, M., Maruyama, S., Minoda, A., Weber, A. P. M., Inouye, T., Sekine, Y., Fujita, Y., Omata, T., Tanaka, K. 2010 Nitrate assimilatory genes and their transcriptional regulation in a unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae: genetic evidence for nitrite reduction by a sulfite reductase-like enzyme. Plant Cell Physiol., 51, 707-717.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Nitrate assimilation; Nitrite reductase; Nitrogen regulation; Red alga; Sulfite reductase
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 20375110
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcq043

Busch, A., Nield, J., Hippler, M. 2010 The composition and structure of photosystem I-associatied antenna from Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant J., 62, 886-897.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Lhcr; photosystem I; phycobilisomes; proteomics
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 20230507
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04202.x

Minoda, A., Weber, A. P. M., Tanaka, K., Miyagishima, S. 2010 Nucleus-independent control of the rubisco operon by the plastid-encoded transcription factor Ycf30 in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant Physiol., 154, 1532-1540.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 20813908
DOI: 10.1104/pp.110.163188

Imamura, S., Kanesaki, Y., Ohnuma, M., Inouye, T., Sekine, Y., Fujiwara, T., Kuroiwa, T., Tanaka, K. 2009 R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, CmMYB1, is a central nitrogen assimilation regulator in Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 106, 12548-12553.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 19592510
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0902790106

Fujiwara, T., Misumi, O., Tashiro, K., Yoshida, Y., Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Imamura, S., Yoshida, M., Mori, T., Tanaka, K., Kuroiwa, T. 2009 Peirodic gene expression patterns duiring the highly synchronized cell nucleus and organelle division cycles in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. DNA Res., 16, 59-72.
Keywords: cell cycle; microarray; mitochondria-plastid division genes; organelle division genes; Cyanidioschyzon merolae
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 19147531
DOI: 10.1093/dnares/dsn032

Kobayashi, Y., Kanesaki, Y., Tanaka, A., Kuroiwa, H., Kuroiwa, T., Tanaka, K. 2009 Tetrapyrrole signal as a cell-cycle coordinator from organelle to nuclear DNA replication in plant cells. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 106, 803-807.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 19141634
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0804270105

Yagisawa, F., Nishida, K., Yoshida, M., Ohnuma, N., Shimada, T., Fujiwara, T., Yoshida, Y., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Kuroiwa, T. 2009 Identification of novel proteins in isolated polyphosphate vacuoles in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant J., 60, 882-893.
Keywords: polyphosphate; vacuole; primitive; Cyanidioschyzon; isolation; mass spectrometry (MS)
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 19709388
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.04008.x

Yoshida, Y., Kuroiwa, H., Hirooka, S., Fujiwara, T., Ohnuma, M., Yoshida, M., Misumi, O., Kawano, S., Kuroiwa, T. 2009 The bacterial ZapA-like protein ZED is required for mitochondrial division. Curr. Biol., 19, 1491-1497.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 19699094
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.07.035

Ohnuma, M., Misumi, O., Fujiwara, T., Watanabe, S., Tanaka, K., Kuroiwa, T. 2009 Transient gene suppression in a red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. Protoplasma, 236, 107-112.
Keywords: Antisense suppression; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Catalase; GFP; Transformation
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 19533298
DOI: 10.1007/s00709-009-0056-5

Ohnuma, M., Yokoyama, T., Inouye, T., Sekine, Y., Tanaka, K. 2008 Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transient gene expression in a Red Alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. Plant Cell Physiol., 49, 117-120.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Hemagglutinin; Polyethylene glycol; Transformation; Transient expression system
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 18003671
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcm157

Shirabe, T., Ito, K., Yoshimura, E. 2008 Dequenching of Cu(I)-bathocuproinedisulfonate complexes for high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of phytochelatins, heavy-metal-binding peptides produced by the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Anal. Chem., 80, 9360-9362.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 19551996
DOI: 10.1021/ac801741b

Imamura, S., Hanaoka, M., Tanaka, K. 2008 The plant-specific TFIIB-related protein, pBrp, is a general transcription factor for RNA polymerase I. EMBO J., 27, 2317-2327.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 18668124
DOI: 10.1038/emboj.2008.151

Nozaki, H., Takano, H., Misumi, O., Terasawa, K., Matsuzaki, M., Maruyama, S., Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Yoshida, Y., Fujiwara, T., Takio, S., Tamura, K., Chung, S. J., Nakamura, S., Kuroiwa, H., Tanaka, K., Sato, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2007 A 100%-complete sequence reveals unusually simple genomic features in the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. BMC Biol., 5, 28 (article ID).
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 17623057
DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-5-28

Cunningham, Jr., F. X., Lee, H., Gantt, E. 2007 Carotenoid biosynthesis in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Eukaryot. Cell, 6, 533-545.
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 17085635
DOI: 10.1128/EC.00265-06

Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Kuroiwa, H., Yoshida, Y., Kuroiwa, T. 2007 WD40 protein Mda1 is purified with Dnm1 and forms a dividing ring for mitochondria before Dnm1 in Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 104, 4736-4741.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 17360593
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0609364104

Maruyama, S., Misumi, O., Ishii, Y., Asakawa, S., Shimizu, A., Sasaki, T., Matsuzaki, M., Shin-i, T., Nozaki, H., Kohara, Y., Shimizu, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2007 Centromere dynamics in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant J., 49, 1122-1129.
Keywords: centromere; CENH3; chromosome segregation; Cyanidioschyzon merolae
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 17319844
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.03024.x

Sato, N., Moriyama, T. 2007 Genomic and biochemical analysis of lipid biosynthesis in the unicellular Rhodophyte Cyanidioschyzon merolae: lack of a plastidic desaturation pathway results in the coupled pathway of galactolipid synthesis. Eukaryot. Cell, 6, 1006-1017.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 17416897
DOI: 10.1128/EC.00393-06

Hamana, K. & Niitsu, M. 2006 Cellular polyamines of lower eukaryotes belonging to the phyla Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta and Percolozoa. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 52, 235-240.
Keywords: Cryptophyta; Glaucophyta; Haptophyta; Perclozoa; polyamine; Rhodophyta
Strain(s): 82742762772823533886997067157417637641016101710321036133214411456145714621463146714733377 
PubMed: 17116972
DOI: 10.2323/jgam.52.235

Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Kuroiwa, H., Nagata, T., Kuroiwa, T. 2006 Isolated chloroplast division machinery can actively constrict after stretching. Science, 313, 1435-1438.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 16960006
DOI: 10.1126/science.1129689

Terashita, M., Maruyama, S., Tanaka, K. 2006 Cytoplasmic localization of the single glutamine synthetase in a unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 70, 2313-2315.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; glutamine synthetase; localization; nitrogen assimilation; red alga
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 16960360
DOI: 10.1271/bbb.60174

Nozaki, H., Matsuzaki, M., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Higashiyama, T., Kuroiwa, T. 2005 Phylogenetic implications of the CAD complex from the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae (Cyanidiales, Rhodophyta). J. Phycol., 41, 652-657.
Keywords: CAD complex; evolution; phylogeny; red algae; pyrimidine biosynthetic cluster
Strain(s): 13323377 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00079.x

Misumi, O., Matsuzaki, M., Nozaki, H., Miyagishima, S., Mori, T., Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Yoshida, Y., Kuroiwa, H., Kuroiwa, T. 2005 Cyanidioschyzon merolae genome A tool for facilitating comparable studies on organelle biogenesis in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Plant Physiol., 137, 567-585.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 15681662
DOI: 10.1104/pp.104.053991

Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Kuroiwa, H., Nagata, T., Kuroiwa, T. 2005 Cell cycle-regulated, microtubule-independent organelle division in Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Mol. Biol. Cell, 16, 2493-2502.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 15772156
DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E05-01-0068

Minoda, A., Nagasawa, K., Hanaoka, M., Horiuchi, M., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, K. 2005 Microarray profiling of plastid gene expression in a unicellular red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant Mol. Biol., 59, 375-385.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; microarray; photosynthesis; plastid; red algae; sigma factor
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 16235106
DOI: 10.1007/s11103-005-0182-1

Matsuzaki, M. et al. 2004 Genome sequence of the ultrasmall unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. Nature, 428, 653-657.
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 15071595
DOI: 10.1038/nature02398

Nozaki, H., Matsuzaki, M., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Hasegawa, M., Higashiyama, T., Shin-i, T., Kohara, Y., Ogasawara, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2004 Cyanobarterial genes transmitted to the nucleus before divergence of red algae in the Chromista. J. Mol. Evol., 59, 103-113.
Keywords: Chromista; cyanobacterial nuclear genes; phylogeny; plastids; primary endosymbiosis; secondary endosymbiosis
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 15383913
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-003-2611-1

Maruyama, S., Misumi, O., Ishii, Y., Asakawa, S., Shimizu, A., Sasaki, T., Matsuzaki, M., Shin-I, T., Nozaki, H., Kohara, Y., Shimizu, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2004 The minimal eukaryotic ribosomal DNA units in the primitive red algae Cyanidioschyzon merolae. DNA Res., 11, 83-91.
Keywords: BAC library; Genome organization; Nucleolus
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 15449541
DOI: 10.1093/dnares/11.2.83

Nishiida, K., Misumi, O., Yagisawa, F., Kuroiwa, H., Nagata, T., Kuroiwa, T. 2004 Triple Immunofluorescent Labeling of FtsZ, Dynamin, and EF-Tu revealed a loose association between the inner and outer membrane mitochondrial division machinery in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 52, 843-849.
Keywords: FtsZ; dynamin; elongation factor; Tu; mitochondrial division; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Alexa; triple immunofluorescence
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 15208351
DOI: 10.1369/jhc.4C6315.2004

Minoda, A., Sakagami, R., Yagisawa, F., Kuroiwa, T., Tanaka, K. 2004 Improvement of culture conditions and evidence for nuclear transformation by homologous recombination in a red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. Plant Cell Physiol., 45, 667-671.
Keywords: Cultivation; — Cyanidioschyzon merolae; 5-FOA resistance; Homologous recombination; Red algae; Transformation
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 18003671
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pch087

Ohta, N., Matsuzaki, M., Misumi, O., Miyagishima, S., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, K., Shin-I, T., Kohara, Y., Kuroiwa, T. 2003 Complete sequence and analysis of the plastid genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. DNA Res., 10, 67-77.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; red algae; plastid; genome sequencing
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 12755171
DOI: 10.1093/dnares/10.2.67

Nozaki, H., Matsuzaki, M., Takahara, M., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Hasegawa, M., Shin-i, T., Kohara, Y., Ogasawara, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2003 The phylogenetic position of red algae revealed by multiple nuclear genes from mitochondria-containing eukaryotes and an alternative hypothesis on the origin of plastids. J. Mol. Evol., 56, 485-497.
Keywords: eukaryotes; evolution; nuclear genes; outgroup; phylogeny; plantae; plastid; protein-coding genes; red algae
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 12664168
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-002-2419-9

Miyaghishim, S., Nishida, K., Mori, T., Matsuzaki, M., Higashiyama, T., Kuroiwa, H., Kuroiwa, T. 2003 A plant-specific dynamin-related protein forms a ring at the chloroplast division site. Plant Cell, 15, 655-665.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 12615939
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.009373

Nishida, K., Takahara M., Miyagishima S., Kuroiwa H., Matsuzaki M., Kuroiwa, T. 2003 Dynamic recruitment of dynamin for final mitochondrial severance in a red alga. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 100, 2146-2151.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 12566569
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0436886100

Kobayashi, T. Takahara, M., Miyagishima, S, Kuroiwa, H., Sasaki, N., Ohta, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2002 Detection and localization of a chloroplast-encoded HU-like protein that may organize chloroplast nucleoids. Plant Cell, 14, 1579-1589.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 12119376
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.002717

Miyagishima, S., Takahara, M., Mori, T., Kuroiwa, H., Higashiyama, T., Kuroiwa, T. 2001b Plastid division is driven by a complex mechanism that involves differential transition of the bacterial and eukaryotic division rings. Plant Cell, 13, 2257-2268.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 11595800
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.010185

Miyagishima, S., Takahara, M., Kuroiwa, T. 2001a Novel filaments 5 nm diameter constitute the cytosolic ring of the plastid division apparatus. Plant Cell, 13, 707-721.
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 11251107
DOI: 10.1105/tpc.13.3.707

Toda, K., Takano, H., Nozaki, H., Kuroiwa, T. 2001 The second serine acetyltransferase, bacterial-type O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase and eukaryotic-type O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. J. Plant Res., 114, 291-300.
Keywords: Cysteine synthesis; Serine acetyltransferase; O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase; Primitive red alga; Cyanidioschyzon merolae
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/PL00013990

Takahara, M., Takahashi, H., Matsunaga, S., Miyagishima, S., Takano, H., Sakai, A., Kawano, S., Kuroiwa, T. 2000 A putative mitochondrial ftsZ gene is present in the unicellular primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Mol. Gen. Genet., 264, 452-460.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; ftsZ; Mitochondrial division; Plastid division; Primitive red alga
Strain(s): 3377 
PubMed: 11129049
DOI: 10.1007/s0043800003

Ohta, N., Sato, N., Kuroiwa, T. 1999 The organellar genomes of Cyanidioschyzon merolae. In Enigmatic Microorganisms and Life in Extreme Environments, Ed. by Seckbach, J., Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 139-149.
Strain(s): 3377 

Ohta, N., Sato, N., Kuroiwa, T. 1998 Structure and organization of the mitochondrial genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae deduced from the complete nucleotide sequence. Nucleic Acids Res., 26, 5190-5198.
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 9801318
DOI: 10.1093/nar/26.22.5190

Kuroiwa, T., Kuroiwa, H., Sakai, A., Takahashi, H., Toda, K., Itoh, R. 1998 The division apparatus of plastids and mitochondria. Int. Rev. Cytol., 181, 1-41.
Keywords: Cytokinesis; Organellokinesis; Organelle division; Mitochondrial division; Plastid division; FtsZ; Contractile ring; Cell division
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1016/S0074-7696(08)60415-5

Kuroiwa, T. 1998 The primitive red algae Cyanidium caldarium and Cyanidioschyzon merolae as model system for investigating the dividing apparatus of mitochondria and plastids. Bioessays, 20, 344-354.
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(199804)20:4<344::AID-BIES11>3.0.CO;2-2

Ohta, N., Satao, N., Ueda, K., Kuroiwa, T. 1997 Analysis of a plastid gene cluster reveals a close relationship between Cyanidioschyzon and Cyanidium. J. Plant Res., 110, 235-245.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Cyanidium caldarium; Plastid genome; Rhodophyta
Strain(s): 3377 
DOI: 10.1007/BF02509312

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