Strain number NIES-2137  
Phylum Rhodophyta  
Class Cyanidiophyceae  
Scientific name Cyanidium caldarium (Tilden) Geitler  
Former name  
Common name Red alga  
Locality (Date of collection) Nikko-Yumoto Hot spring, Nikko, Tochigi, Japan  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Hot spring  
History < IAM (2007) < Nagashima, Hideyuki (1991)  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Fukuda, I. (1958-**-**)  
Identified by Fukushima, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Hideyuki  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2018 Jan]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  M-Allen  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  5-11 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  5 M  
Gene information  
Cell size (min - max) 2 - 4 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM R-11
Other strain no. : RK-1  
Remarks Axenic 
Kato, K., Hamaguchi, T., Kumazawa, M., Nakajima, Y., Ifuku, K., Hirooka, S., Hirose, Y., Miyagishima, S., Suzuki, T., Kawakami, K., Dohmae, N., Yonekura, K., Shen, J.-R., Nagao, R. 2024 The structure of PSI-LHCI from Cyanidium caldarium provides evolutionary insights into conservation and diversity of red-lineage LHCs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 121, e2319658121 (article ID).
Keywords: light-harvesting complex; photosynthesis; photosystem; red alga
Strain(s): 2137 
PubMed: 38442179
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2319658121

Nagao, R., Ueno, Y., Furutani, M., Kato, K., Shen, J.-R., Akimoto, S. 2023 Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of PSI‑LHCI from the red alga Cyanidium caldarium. Photosynth. Res., 156, 315–323.
Keywords: Cyanidium caldarium; Excitation-energy transfer; PSI-LHCI; Red algae
Strain(s): 2137 
PubMed: 36781711
DOI: 10.1007/s11120-023-00999-y

Hamana, K., Furuchi, T., Hayashi, H., Uemura, T., Niitsu, M. 2023 Additional polyamine analysis of the algae belonging to the phyla Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. ─Polyamine analysis of algae V─ Microb. Resour. Syst., 39, 33-40.
Keywords: alga; Chlorophyta; Glaucophyta; polyamine; Rhodophyta
Strain(s): 22625025455055162612981332170318362137216321642165216622522353289433773645386738913892410743904452 

Jong, L. W., Fujiwara, T., Hirooka, S., Miyagishima, S. 2021 Cell size for commitment to cell division and number of successive cell divisions in cyanidialean red algae. Protoplasma, 258, 1103–1118.
Keywords: Cell cycle; Cyanidiales; Cyanidioschyzon; Cyanidium; Galdieria; Multiple fission
Strain(s): 21373377 
PubMed: 33675395
DOI: 10.1007/s00709-021-01628-y

Mikulic, P. & Beardall, J. 2021 Oxidative and anti-oxidative responses to metal toxicity in an extremophilic alga (Cyanidium caldarium) and a neutrophilic alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). Phycologia, 60, 513-523.
Keywords: Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Zinc toxicity
Strain(s): 2137 
DOI: 10.1080/00318884.2021.1984044

Hirooka, S., Tomita, R., Fujiwara, T., Ohnuma, M., Kuroiwa, H., Kuroiwa, T., Miyagishima, S. 2020 Efficient open cultivation of cyanidialean red algae in acidified seawater. Sci Rep, 10, 13794 (article ID).
Strain(s): 21373377 
PubMed: 32839467
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-70398-z

Takaichi, S., Yokoyama, A., Mochimaru, M., Uchida, H., Murakami, A. 2016 Carotenogenesis diversification in phylogenetic lineages of Rhodophyta. J. Phycol., 52, 329-338.
Keywords: alloxanthin; antheraxanthin; carotenogenesis; carotenoid; Cryptophyta; Glaucophyta; lutein; red algae; Rhodophyta; Zeaxanthin
Strain(s): 697700705133221372138 
PubMed: 27273528
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12411

Mikulic, P., Beardall, J. 2014 Contrasting ecotoxicity effects of zinc on growth and photosynthesis in a neutrophilic alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and an extremophilic alga (Cyanidium caldarium). Chemosphere, 112, 402-411.
Keywords: Photosynthesis; Algae; Zinc; Extremophile; Neutrophile; Acclimation
Strain(s): 2137 
PubMed: 25048933
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.049

Ohta, N., Nagashima, H., Kawano, S., Kuroiwa, T. 1992 Isolation of the chloroplast DNA and the sequence of the trnK gene from Cyanidium caldarium strain RK-1. Plant Cell Physiol., 33, 657-661.
Keywords: chloroplast DNA; Cyanidium caldarium; transfer RNA-lysine
Strain(s): 2502137 
DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a078302

Hamana, K., Matsuzaki, S., Niitsu, M., Samejima, K., Nagashima, H. 1990 Polyamines of unicellular thermoacidophilic red alga Cyanidium caldarium. Phytochemistry, 29, 377-380.
Keywords: Cyanidium caldarium; Rhodophyta; red algae; polyamines; chemotaxonomy
Strain(s): 25021373891 
DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(90)85082-Q

Nagashima, H. & Fukuda, I. 1983 Floridosides in unicellular hot spring algae. Phytochemistry, 22, 1949-1951.
Keywords: Cyanidium caldarium; Chroococcidiopsis sp.; hot spring algae; chemotaxonomy; low MW carbohydrates; floridoside; iso-floridoside; autotroph; heterotroph
Strain(s): 25021373891 
DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(83)80020-X

Unauthorized copying and replication of text, images, and tables in our homepage, are prohibited.