Strain number NIES-5  
Phylum Heterokontophyta  
Class Raphidophyceae  
Scientific name Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada ex Y.Hara & Chihara  
Synonym Entomosigma akashiwo Y.Hada; Chattonella akashiwo (Y.Hada) Loeblich III 1979; Olisthodiscus carterae Hulburt 1965; Heterosigma inlandica Hada 1968; Chattonella inlandica (Y.Hada) Loeblich III & Fine 1977; Heterosigma carterae (Hulbert) F.J.R.Taylor 1992  
Former name  
Common name  
Locality (Date of collection) Gokasho Bay, Mie, Japan (1966-**-**)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Marine  
History < Iwasaki, Hideo  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Iwasaki, Hideo  
Identified by Hara, Yoshiaki  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2018 Feb]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  f/2  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  31 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  1 M  
Gene information 16S rRNA ( AB181953 ) , 16S-tRNA-Ile-tRNA-Ala-23S ( AB181957 ) , 28S rRNA ( AB217644 ) , CO1 ( AB334506 ) , rbcL ( AB334433 ) , rbcL, rbcS, cfxQ, psbA ( AB176660 )  
Cell size (min - max) 10 - 15 μm  
Organization Unicellular; Flagellate 
Characteristics Red tide  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : GHE  
Remarks Fragile species to transportation stresses; Read and agree "How to order 4.1"; Axenic 
Al-Azab, A. J. S., Widyaningrum, D., Hirakawa, H., Hayashi, Y., Tanaka, S., Ohama, T. 2021 A resin cyanoacrylate nanoparticle as an acute cell death inducer to broad spectrum of microalgae. Algal Res., 54, 102191 (article ID).
Keywords: Cell death; Coccolith; Non-green algae; ROS; Poly (isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles
Strain(s): 15715274331534590615699712900101713081310241127642778 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2021.102191

Takenaka, S., Yoshikawa, T., Kadowaki, S., Okunishi, S., Maeda, H. 2017 Microflora in the soft Ttissue of the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to the harmful microalga Heterosigma akashiwo. Biocontrol Science, 22, 79-87.
Keywords: Pacific oyster; Heterosigma akashiwo; Filtraion rate; Intestinal microflora
Strain(s): 5 
PubMed: 28659559
DOI: 10.4265/bio.22.79

Yoshimura, T., Yanagawa, T., Fujiwara, A., Murai, K., Nogata, Y., Furuta, T., Kobayashi, T. 2016 Marine diatom Coscinodiscus wailesiii inhibits DPD measurement of residual chlorine in seawater samples. Sessile Organisms, 33, 38-43 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Residual chlorine; DPD; Seawater; Coscinodiscus wailesii
Strain(s): 15237323 
DOI: 10.4282/sosj.33.38

Demura, M., Noël, M.-H., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M., Kawachi, M. 2009 Taxonomic revision of Chattonella antiqua, C. marina and C. ovata (Raphidophyceae) based on their morphological characteristics and genetic diversity. Phycologia, 48, 518-535.
Keywords: Chattonella antiqua; Chattonella marina; Chattonella ovata; COI; COX1; Genetic diversity; ITS; Microsatellite; Morphology; Phylogeny; Population; Raphidophyceae; rbcL; Speciation; Taxonomy
Strain(s): 123569101483848511311411611814616129355756160367171684919741975197619771978198019811982198319841986238323842385238623872388238923912392239323942395239623972398239924002401240224032404240524062407 
DOI: 10.2216/08-98.1

Hosoi-Tanabe, S., Otake, I., Sako, Y. 2006 Phylogenetic analysis of noxious red tide flagellates Chattonella antiqua, C. marina, C. ovata, and C. verruculosa (Raphidophyceae) based on the rRNA gene family. Fish. Sci., 72, 1200-1208.
Keywords: Chattonella; genetic homogeneity; phylogenetic analysis; Raphidophyceae; rRNA gene family
Strain(s): 1586121558559603670 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01277.x

Iwata, Y., Sugahara, I., Kimura, T., Kowa, H., Matsumoto, A., Noritake, K. 2004 Properties of an algicidal bacterium (Flavobacterium sp.) against Karenia mikimotoi isolated from Ise Bay, Japan. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 70, 537-541 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: algicidal bacteria; red tide; Karenia mikimotoi; Flavobacterium
Strain(s): 13532 
DOI: 10.2331/suisan.70.537

Yamaguchi, H., Nishijima, T., Nishitani, H., Fukami, K., Adachi, M. 2004 Organic phosphorus utilization and alkaline phosphatase production of 3 red tide photoplankton. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 70, 123-130 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Karenia mikimotoi; Skeletonema costatum; Heterosigma akashiwo; red tide phytoplankton; organic phosphorus; alkaline phosphatase
Strain(s): 5324 
DOI: 10.2331/suisan.70.123

Sako, Y., Adachi, M., Ishida, Y. 1995 Specific monoclonal antibodies and DNA probes for the identification of the toxic dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium. In Harmful Marine Algal Blooms, Eds. by Lassus, P., et al., Lavoisier, Intercept Ltd., pp. 77-82.
Strain(s): 5118 

Kawai, H., Inouye, I. 1989 Flagellar autofluorescence in forty-four chloraphyll c-containig algae. Phycologia, 28, 222-227.
Strain(s): 515161 
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-28-2-222.1

Iwasaki, H., Sasada, K. 1969 Studies on the red tide dinoflagellates - II. On Heterosigma inlandica appeared in Gokasho Bay, Shima Peninsula. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 35, 943-947 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 5 

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