Strain number NIES-2152  
Phylum Chlorophyta  
Class Trebouxiophyceae  
Scientific name Parachlorella kessleri (Fott & Nováková) Krienitz, E.H.Hegewald, Hepperle, V.Huss, T.Rohr & M.Wolf  
Synonym Chlorella kessleri Fott & Nováková 1969  
Former name  
Common name Green alga  
Locality (Date of collection)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source)  
History < IAM (2007) < Yakult < IAM;  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Watanabe, Atsushi  
Identified by Kessler, E. (1994); Confirmed by DNA sequencing at NIES  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2008 Apr]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  C (agar)  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  8-15 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  3 M  
Gene information Whole-genome ( BBXU00000000 ) , 18S rRNA ( AB488589 )  
Cell size (min - max)  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics Starch production (Takeshita et al. 2014) ; Genome decoded strain (Ota et al. 2016)  
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM C-33
Remarks Cryopreserved; Axenic 
Delrue, F., Cerqueira, M. R. D., Compadre, A., Alvarez, P., Fleury, G., Escoffier, C., Sassi, J. F. 2021 Hydroponic farm wastewater treatment using an indigenous consortium. Processes, 9, 519 (article ID).
Strain(s): 2272152 
DOI: 10.3390/pr9030519

Anam, K., Rahman, D. Y., Hidhayati, N., Rachmayati, R., Susilaningsih, D., Agustini, N. W. S., Praharyawan, S., Susanti, H., Apriastini, M. 2021 Lipid accumulation on optimized condition through biomass production in green algae. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 762, 012075 (article ID).
Strain(s): 215221692170 
DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/762/1/012075

Maltsev, Y., Maltseva, K., Kulikovskiy, M., Maltseva, S. 2021 Influence of light conditions on microalgae growth and content of lipids, carotenoids, and fatty acid composition. Biology-Basel, 10, 1060 (article ID).
Keywords: carotenoids; fatty acids; light; lipids; microalgae; photoperiod
Strain(s): 21512152215921692170 
PubMed: 34681157
DOI: 10.3390/biology10101060

Inoue, A., Ota, S., Matsuzaki, R., Okada, M., Kawachi, M. 2020 Exploration of high oil-producing microalgae strains using a microfluidic chip cell sorter. Jpn. J. Phycol. (Sôrui), 68, 143-152.
Keywords: cell sorting; flow cytometry; on-chip Sort; lipid-producing algae; Nile Red
Strain(s): 2152 

Mathiot, C., Ponge, P., Gallard, B., Sassi, J.-F., Delrue, F., Le Moigne, N. 2019 Microalgae starch-based bioplastics: screening of ten strains and plasticization of unfractionated microalgae by extrusion. Carbohydr. Polym., 208/, 142-151.
Keywords: Microalgae; Bioplastics; Starch; Plasticization; Extrusion
Strain(s): 942272152217321952280 
PubMed: 30658785
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.12.057

Otaki, R., Oishi, Y., Abe, S., Fujiwara, S., Sato, N. 2019 Regulatory carbon metabolism underlying seawater-based promotion of triacylglycerol accumulation in Chlorella kessleri. Bioresour. Technol., 289, 121686 (article ID).
Keywords: Carbon metabolism; Chlorella kessleri; Gene expression; Seawater-based biofuel; Triacylglycero
Strain(s): 2152 
PubMed: 31238290
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121686

Ota, S., Oshima, K., Yamazaki, T., Takeshita, T., Bišová, K., Zachleder, V., Hattori, M., Kawano, S. 2019 The Parachlorella genome and transcriptome endorse active RWP-RK, meiosis and flagellar genes in trebouxiophycean algae. Cytologia, 84, 323-330.
Keywords: Evolution; Flagellum; MID; Meiosis; Parachlorella; RWP-RK
Strain(s): 2152 
DOI: 10.1508/cytologia.84.323

Takeshita, T., Ivanov, I. N., Oshima, K., Ishii, K., Kawamoto, H., Ota, S., Yamazaki, T., Hirata, A., Kazama, Y., Abe, T., Hattori, M., Bišová,K., Zachleder, V., Kawano, S. 2018 Comparison of lipid productivity of Parachlorella kessleri heavy-ion beam irradiation mutant PK4 in laboratory and 150-L mass bioreactor, identification and characterization of its genetic variation. Algal Res., 35, 416-426.
Keywords: Parachlorella kessleri; Nutrient dilution; 150-L mass cultivation; Whole genome sequencing; Mutation identification; Single-nucleotide polymorphism
Strain(s): 2152 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2018.09.005

Yamazaki, T., Konosu, E., Takeshita, T., Hireta, A., Ota, S., Kazama, Y., Abe, T., Kawano, S. 2018 Independent regulation of the lipid and starch synthesis pathways by sulfate metabolites in the green microalga Parachlorella kessleri under sulfur starvation conditions. Algal Res., 36, 37-47.
Keywords: Chlorella; Lipids; Starch; Sulfur assimilation; Sulfur starvation
Strain(s): 2152 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2018.09.022

Hayashi, T., Otaki, R., Hirai, K., Tsuzuki, M., Sato, N. 2017 Optimization of seawater-based triacylglycerol accumulation in a freshwater green alga, Chlorella kessleri, through simultaneous imposition of loweredtemperature and enhanced-light intensity. Algal Res., 28, 100-107.
Keywords: Chlorella kessleri; Freshwater green algae; Low temperature; Moderate light; Seawater; Triacylglycerol
Strain(s): 2152 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2017.10.016

Ota, S. & Kawano, S. 2017 Extraction and Molybdenum Blue-based Quantification of Total Phosphate and Polyphosphate in Parachlorella. Bio-protocol, 7, e2539 (article ID).
Keywords: Alga; Chlorella; Parachlorella; Phosphorus; Polyphosphate; Molybdenum blue reaction
Strain(s): 2152 
DOI: 10.21769/BioProtoc.2539

Ota, S., Oshima, K., Yamazaki, T., Kim, S., Yu, Z., Yoshihara, M., Takeda, K., Takeshita, T., Hirata, A., Bišová, K., Zachleder, V., Hattori, M., Kawano, S. 2016 Highly efficient lipid production in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri: draft genome and transcriptome endorsed by whole-cell 3D ultrastructure. Biotechnol. Biofuels, 9, 13 (article ID).
Keywords: Genome; Green alga; Lipid body; Parachlorella kessleri; RNA-seq; Whole-genome sequence; Transcriptome; 3D-TEM
Strain(s): 2152 
PubMed: 26811738
DOI: 10.1186/s13068-016-0424-2

Ota, S., Yoshihara, M., Yamazaki, T., Takeshita, T., Hirata, A., Konomi, M., Oshima, K., Hattori, M., Bišová, K., Zachleder, V., Kawano, S. 2016 Deciphering the relationship among phosphate dynamics, electron-dense body and lipid accumulation in the green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Sci Rep, 6, 25731 (article ID).
Strain(s): 2152 
PubMed: 27180903
DOI: 10.1038/srep25731

Takeshita, T., Takeda,K., Ota, S., Yamazaki, T., Kawano, S. 2015 A simple method for measuring the starch and lipid contents in the cell of microalgae. Cytologia, 80, 475-481.
Keywords: Chlorella; Starch; Lipid; Microplate; Trade-off
Strain(s): 2152 
DOI: 10.1508/cytologia.80.475

Takeshita, T., Ota, S., Yamazaki, T., Hirata, A., Zachleder, V., Kawano, S. 2014 Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions. Bioresour. Technol., 158, 127-134.
Keywords: Accumulation shift; Lipid; Chlorella; Starch; Strong light
Strain(s): 215121522159216921702179 
PubMed: 24583913
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.01.135

Yamazaki, T; Hirai, C; Ota, S; Kuwano, K; Kawano, S. 2014 Use of FM1-43, a membrane-specific fluorescent dye, to estimate plasma membrane integrity in the cryopreservation of green algae. CryoLetters, 35, 180-187.
Keywords: FM1-43, cryopreservation, two-step freezing, plasma membrane, green algae, Parachlorella kessleri
Strain(s): 2152 
PubMed: 24997835

Ota, S., Matsuda, T., Takeshita, T., Yamazaki, T., Kazama, Y., Abe, T., Kawano, S. 2013 Phenotypic spectrum of Parachlorella kessleri (Chlorophyta) mutants produced by heavy-ion irradiation. Bioresour. Technol., 149, 432-438.
Keywords: Algae; Breeding; Parachlorella; Heavy-ion irradiation; Mutation
Strain(s): 2152 
PubMed: 24135567
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.09.079

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