Strain number NIES-2173  
Phylum Chlorophyta  
Class Trebouxiophyceae  
Scientific name Chlorella sorokiniana Shihira & R.W.Krauss  
Former name Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck  
Common name Green alga  
Locality (Date of collection)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source)  
History < IAM (2007) < Tsuzuki, Mikio (1988) < Avramova, S. T. (1982) < probably Semenenko  
Isolator (Date of isolation)  
Identified by Hoshina, Ryo (Reidentify)  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2020 Sept]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  C (agar)  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  8-15 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  3 M  
Gene information 18S rRNA ( AB080308 ) , actin-1 ( AB080312 ) , actin-2 ( AB080313 ) , 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S ( AB731601 AB731602 )  
Cell size (min - max)  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics Starch production (Miyachi et al. 1986)  
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM C-536; IPPAS C-3
Remarks Cryopreserved; Axenic 
Ramírez‑Romero, A., Da Costa Magalhães, B., Matricon, L., Sassi, J.-F., Steyer, J.-P., Delrue, F. 2024 Aqueous phase recycling: impact on microalgal lipid accumulation and biomass quality. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., ,
Keywords: Renewable feedstock; Hydrothermal liquefaction; Green fuels; Microalgal biomass; Nutrient cycling
Strain(s): 2272173 
PubMed: 38438644
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-024-32701-7

Krivina, E., Portnov, A., Temraleeva, A. 2024 A description of Aliichlorella ignota gen. et sp. nov. and a comparison of the efficiency of species delimitation methods in the Chlorella-clade (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycol. Res., ,
Strain(s): 4552167217121732330403240334034 
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12551

Natori, N., Kuwata, M., Tanaka, K., Toda, T. 2023 Plankton survey method based on scanning electron microscopy. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 70, 1-9 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: whole effluent toxicity; drainage management; Raphidocelis subcapitata; johkasou
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.24763/bpsj.70.1_1

Marinič, D., Grilc, M., Hočevar, B., Delrue, F., Likozar, B. 2023 Liquefaction, cracking and hydrogenation of microalgae biomass resources to CO2 negative advanced biofuels: Mechanisms, reaction microkinetics and modelling. Renew. Energy, 203, 382-393.
Keywords: Microalgae; Biofuel; Liquefaction; Hydrodeoxygenation; One-pot reaction
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2022.12.055

Nishi, K. 2023 Development of advanced light-tolerant microalgae-nitrifying bacteria consortia for ammonia removal under strong light irradiation using light-shielding hydrogel. PhD thesis, Soka University, Japan, 94 pp.
Strain(s): 2173 

Nishi, K., Akizuki, S., Toda, T., Matsuyama, T., Ida, J. 2022 Advanced light-tolerant microalgae-nitrifying bacteria consortia for stable ammonia removal under strong light irradiation using light-shielding hydrogel. Chemosphere, 297, 134252 (article ID).
Keywords: Microalgae–nitrifying bacteria consortia; Photoinhibition; Light-shielding; Free ammonia; Immobilisation
Strain(s): 2173 
PubMed: 35271892
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134252

Ramírez-Romero, A., Da Costa Magalhães, B., Dimitriades-Lemaire, A., Sassi, J.-F., Delrue, F., Steyer, J.-P. 2022 Chlorellaceae feedstock selection under balanced nutrient limitation. FERMENTATION, 8, 554 (article ID).
Keywords: biofuel; microalgal biomass; Chlorella; lipids
Strain(s): 2272173 
DOI: 10.3390/fermentation8100554

Akizuki, S., Cuevas-Rodríguez, G., Toda, T. 2021 Nitrification of anaerobic digestate using a consortium of microalgae and nitrifiers in an open photobioreactor with moving bed carriers. Chemosphere, 263, 127948 (article ID).
Keywords: Bacterial immobilization; light attenuation; light stress; high-ammonia wastewater; photo-oxygenation
Strain(s): 2173 
PubMed: 33297018
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127948

Kishi, M., Onouchi, H., Tanaka, K., Yoshida, A., Toda, T. 2021 Simultaneous microalgal culture and biogas upgrading using anaerobic digestion effluent. Bull. Plankton Eco-Eng. Res., 1, 58-73 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 2173 

Sekine, M. 2021 Coupling process of simultaneous desulfurization–nitrification and microalgal cultivation for biogas and effluent from anaerobic digestion. PhD thesis, Soka University, Japan, 128 pp.
Strain(s): 2173 

Qian, J., Shimotori, K., Liu, X., Ban, S., Akizuki, S., Fujiwara, M., Kodera, T., Toda, T., Imai, A. 2021 Enhancement of algal growth by Mg2+ released from anaerobic digestion effluent of aquatic macrophytes through photolysis. Biochem. Eng. J., 172, 108065 (article ID).
Keywords: Ultraviolet photolysis; DOM degradation; DOM molecular size distribution; Mg availability; Bio-digester effluent
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2021.108065

Akizuki, S., Kishi, M., Cuevas-Rodríguez, G., Toda, T. 2020 Effects of different light conditions on ammonium removal in a consortium of microalgae and partial nitrifying granules. Water Res., 171, 115445 (article ID).
Keywords: Energy-saving process; Photo-oxygenation; Short-cut nitrogen removal; Ammonium removal pathway; Empirical model
Strain(s): 2173 
PubMed: 31954203
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.115445

Sekine, M., Yoshida, A., Akizuki, S., Kishi, M., Toda, T. 2020 Microalgae cultivation using undiluted anaerobic digestate by introducing aerobic nitrification–desulfurization treatment. Wat. Sci. Tech., 82, 1070-1080.
Keywords: aerobic sludge; anaerobic digestion effluent; Chlorella sorokiniana; free ammonia inhibition; post anaerobic digestion treatment; simultaneous bacterial process
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.2166/wst.2020.153

Akizuki, S., Cuevas-Rodríguez, G., Toda, T. 2020 Anaerobic digestion effluent treatment using microalgae and nitrifiers in an outdoor raceway pond with fluidized carriers. Water Sci. Technol., 82, 1081–1091.
Keywords: high-ammonia-containing wastewater; immobilization; light-stress; microalgal-bacterial consortia; nitrification; photo-oxygenation
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.2166/wst.2020.226

Qian, J., Liu, X, Ban, S, Fujiwara, M, Kodera, T, Akizuki, S, Toda, T. 2020 pH treatments in continuous cultivation to maximize microalgal production and nutrient removal from anaerobic digestion effluent of aquatic macrophytes. J. Appl. Phycol., 32, 3349–3362.
Keywords: Biomass recovery; Flow-through cultivation; Nutrient removal; pH control; Mg availability; Bio-digester effluent
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-020-02196-z

Krivina, E. S. & Temraleeva, A. D. 2020 Identification problems and cryptic diversity of Chlorella-clade microalgae (Chlorophyta). Microbiology, 89, 720-732.
Keywords: microalgae; morphology; ecology; phylogeny; 18S−ITS1−5.8S−ITS2 fragments; polyphasic approach
Strain(s): 2167217340324034 
DOI: 10.1134/S0026261720060107

Mathiot, C., Ponge, P., Gallard, B., Sassi, J.-F., Delrue, F., Le Moigne, N. 2019 Microalgae starch-based bioplastics: screening of ten strains and plasticization of unfractionated microalgae by extrusion. Carbohydr. Polym., 208/, 142-151.
Keywords: Microalgae; Bioplastics; Starch; Plasticization; Extrusion
Strain(s): 942272152217321952280 
PubMed: 30658785
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.12.057

Kimura, S., Yamada, T., Ban, S., Koyama, M., Toda, T. 2019 Nutrient removal from anaerobic digestion effluents of aquatic macrophytes with the green alga, Chlorella sorokiniana. Biochem. Eng. J., 142, 170-177.
Keywords: Chlorella sorokiniana; anaerobic digestion effluent; maximum algal yield; nutrient removal rate; aquatic macrophytes
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2018.12.001

Hayashida, G., Schneider, C., Espíndola, L., Arias, D., Riquelme, C., Wulff-Zottele, C., Díaz-Palma, P., Rivas, M. 2017 Characterization of a Chlorophyta microalga isolated from a microbial mat in Salar de Atacama (northern Chile) as a potential source of compounds for biotechnological applications. Phycol. Res., 65, 202-211.
Keywords: Altiplane; Chlorella sorokiniana; extreme tolerant; microalgae; microbial mat; oleaginous strain, polyunsaturated; fatty acid; stearic acid
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12176

Huang, Y.-T. & Su, C.-P. 2014 High lipid content and productivity of microalgae cultivating under elevated carbon dioxide. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 11, 703-710.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Chlorella; Global warming; Light intensity
Strain(s): 2173 
DOI: 10.1007/s13762-013-0251-y

Mizuno, Y., Sato, A., Watanabe, K., Hirata, A., Takeshita, T., Ota, S., Sato, N., Zachleder, V., Tsuzuki, M., Kawano, S. 2013 Sequential accumulation of starch and lipid induced by sulfur deficiency in Chlorella and Parachlorella species. Bioresour. Technol., 129, 150-155.
Keywords: Sulfur deficiency; Chlorella spp.; Parachlorella kessleri; Starch; Lipids
Strain(s): 21692173 
PubMed: 23238344
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.11.030

Hoshina, R. & Fujiwara, Y. 2013 Molecular characterization of Chlorella cultures of the National Institute for Environmental Studies culture collection with description of Micractinium inermum sp. nov., Didymogenes sphaerica sp. nov., Didymogenes soliella sp. nov., (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae). Phycol. Res., 61, 124-132.
Keywords: Chlorella; Didymogenes; group 1 intron; internal transcribed spacer 2; Micractinium; species concept
Strain(s): 2167217121732330 
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12010

Yamamoto, M., Nozaki, H., Miyazawa, Y., Koide, T., Kawano, S. 2003 Relationship between presence of a mother cell wall and speciation in the unicellular microalga Nannochloris (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol., 39, 172-184.
Keywords: 18S rRNA; actin gene; autosporulation; binary fission; budding; Chlorella; Chlorophyta; molecular phylogeny; TBR, tree bisection reconnection
Strain(s): 21602169217321864016 
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.2003.02052.

Tsuzuki, M. & Miyachi, S. 1989 The function of carbonic anhydrase in aquatic photosynthesis. Aquatic Botany, 34, 85-104.
Strain(s): 20932138216021732235 
DOI: 10.1016/0304-3770(89)90051-X

Bürger, J., Miyachi, S., Galland, P., Senger, H. 1988 Quantum requirements of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and 77K fluorescence emission spectra in unicellular green algae grown under low- and high-CO2-conditions. Botanica Acta, 101, 229-232.
Strain(s): 21732235 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1988.tb00037.x

Miyachi, S., Tsuzuki, M., Maruyama, I., Ganter, M., Miyachi, S. 1986 Effects of CO2 concentration during growth on the intracellular structure of Chlorella and Scenedesmus (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol., 22, 313-319.
Keywords: Chlorella; CO2 concentration; electron microscopy; pyrenoid starch; Scenedesmus
Strain(s): 68721572160217021732280 

Aizawa, K. & Miyachi, S. 1986 Carbonic anhydrase and CO2 concentrating mechanisms in microalgae and cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 39, 215-233.
Keywords: aquatic algae; cyanobacteria; photoautotrophs; photorespiration; photosynthesis; transport
Strain(s): 2093216021732235 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1986.tb01860.x

Miyachi, S., Tsuzuki, M., Yagawa, Y. 1985 Carbonic anhydrase in various microalgae. In Inorganic Carbon Uptake by Aquatic Photosynthetic Organisms, Eds. by Lucas, W. J. & Berry, J. A., American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, Md, pp. 145-154.
Strain(s): 209321602173 

Miyachi, S. & Miyachi, S. 1985 Ammonia induces starch degradation in Chlorella cells. Plant Cell Physiol., 26, 245-252.
Keywords: ammonia effect; Chlorella; dark CO2 fixation; starch degradation; sucrose formation
Strain(s): 6872157216021702173 
DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a076903

Tsuzuki, M., Shimamoto, T., Yang, S. Y., Miyachi, S. 1984 Diversity in intracellular locality, nature, and function of carbonic anhydrase in verious plants. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 429, 238-240.
Strain(s): 6872160216121622170217322352280 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1984.tb12341.x

Miyachi, S., Tsuzuki, M., Avramova, S. T. 1983 Utilization modes of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis in various species of Chlorella. Plant Cell Physiol., 24, 441-451.
Keywords: bicarbonate fixation; carbonic anhydrase; Chlorella; photosynthetic CO2-fixation
Strain(s): 6872093215721602173 

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