Strain number NIES-298  
Phylum Cyanophyta  
Class Cyanophyceae  
Scientific name Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Lemmermann  
Synonym Microcystis ichthyoblabe Kützing; Microcystis novacekii (Komárek) Compère; Microcystis viridis (A.Brown) Lemmermann; Microcystis wesenbergii Komárek  
Former name Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Lemmermann f. aeruginosa  
Common name Blue-green alga ; Cyanobacteria  
Locality (Date of collection) Lake Kasumigaura, Ibaraki, Japan (1982-09-16)  
Latitude / Longitude 36.0428477398 / 140.373233439 
Habitat (Isolation source) Freshwater  
History < TAC;  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Watanabe, Masayuki (1982-09-18)  
Identified by  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  MACB  
Temperature:  25 C
Light intensity:  20-30 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  20 D  
Gene information Whole-genome ( AJUU00000000 ) , 16S rRNA ( AB023261 FJ461749 ) , 16S-23S-ITS ( AB254442 AM773522 ) , ITS ( AB254442 ) , aerA ( AM773663 ) , cas2 ( AB644437 ) , clpB ( EU369667 ) , dnaJ ( EU369661 ) , DnaK ( EU369665 ) , dnaK1 ( EU369663 ) , dnaK3 ( EU369664 ) , FtsQ-FtsZ ( AB205180 ) , ftsZ ( AB324909 ) , glnA ( AB324988 ) , gltX ( AB325067 ) , groEL ( EU369662 ) , groES ( EU369657 ) , grpE ( EU369660 ) , gyrB ( AB325146 ) , hrcA ( EU369668 ) , hsp20-1 ( EU369658 ) , hsp90 ( EU369666 ) , mcaA ( AM774406 ) , mcnC-mcnE ( AM773670 ) , mcyA ( AB092804 ) , mcyA-mcyD ( AB254427 ) , mcyB ( AB092806 ) , mcyD ( AB444744 ) , mcyG ( AB444785 ) , mcyJ ( AB444826 ) , mdnA ( AM943877 ) , pgi ( AB325225 ) , recA ( AB325304 ) , rpoB ( HM991461 ) , rpoC1 ( AB333819 ) , tpi ( AB325383 )  
Cell size (min - max) - 5 μm  
Characteristics Cyanobacterial water bloom (aoko) ; Toxicity ; microcystin (+) (Tanabe et al. 2009b) ; ST60 (Tanabe et al. 2007) ; Draft genome sequence (Rhee et al. 2012)  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : TAC 47 (K-TAN-47)  
Remarks Cryopreserved; Axenic; Toxicity; Unstable 
Tsai, K.-P., Kirschman, Z. A., Moldaenke, C., Chaffin, J. D., McClure, A., Seo, Y., Bridgeman, T. B. 2024 Field and laboratory studies of fluorescence-based technologies for real-time tracking of cyanobacterial cell lysis and potential microcystins release. Sci. Total Environ., 920, 171121 (article ID).
Keywords: Cyanobacterial bloom; Cell lysis; Extracellular microcystin; Unbound phycocyanin; Early warning system; Drinking water treatment
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 38382604
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.171121

Zheng, S., Lee, V., Meza-Padilla, I., Nissimov, J. I. 2024 Antiviral discovery in toxic cyanobacteria: Low hanging fruit in the age of pandemics. J. Phycol., 60, 574-580.
Keywords: antiviral activity; cyanobacteria; Microcystis aeruginosa; ssRNA viruses; ssDNA viruses
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 38174634
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.13425

Inamori, Y., Inamori, R., Ruike, K., Murakami, K., Suzuki, R. 2024 Screening of the bacterial consortium related to the microcystin-LR degradation isolated from the marine area, Isahaya-bay, and the freshwater area, Isahaya-Shin-ike-Pond, Japan. Int. J. Biol., 15, 8-17.
Keywords: Isahaya-Bay; Isahaya-Shin-ike-Pond; Microcystins; Bacterial consortium; Biological degradation
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.5539/ijb.v15n2p8

Gómez-Martínez, D., Bengtson, J., Nilsson, A. K., Clarke, A. K., Nilsson, R. H., Kristiansson, E., Corcoll, N. 2023 Phenotypic and transcriptomic acclimation of the green microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata to high environmental levels of the herbicide diflufenican. Sci. Total Environ., 875, 162604 (article ID).
Keywords: Acclimation; Microalgae; Transcriptomics; Diflufenican; Carotenoids
Strain(s): 96298 
PubMed: 36878298
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.162604

Liu, J., Zhang, M., Huang, Z., Fang, J., Wang, Z., Zhou, C., Qiu, X. 2023 Diversity, biosynthesis and bioactivity of aeruginosins, a family of cyanobacteria-derived nonribosomal linear tetrapeptides. Mar. Drugs, 21, 217 (article ID).
Keywords: aeruginosins; Choi; biogenesis; structural diversity; nonribosomal polypeptide synthesis; serine protease inhibitory activity
Strain(s): 8998101205298 
PubMed: 37103356
DOI: 10.3390/md21040217

Entfellner, E., Baumann, K. B. L., Edwards, C., Kurmayer, R. 2023 High structural diversity of aeruginosins in bloom-Forming cyanobacteria of the genus Planktothrix as a consequence of multiple recombination events. Mar. Drugs, 21, 638 (article ID).
Keywords: horizontal gene transfer; chemical diversification; freshwater ecotypes; shallow waterbodies; deep waterbodies
Strain(s): 9810220429884324812549 
PubMed: 38132959
DOI: 10.3390/md21120638

Jung, J., Seo, Y. L., Jeong, S. E., Baek, J. H., Park, H. Y., Jeon, C. O. 2022 Linear six-carbon sugar alcohols induce lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-298 cells. Front. Microbiol., 13, 834370 (article ID).
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 35495711
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.834370

Cao, H., Xu, D., Zhang, T., Ren, Q., Xiang, L., Ning, C., Zhang, Y., Gao, R. 2022 Comprehensive and functional analyses reveal the genomic diversity and potential toxicity of Microcystis. Harmful Algae, 113, 102186 (article ID).
Keywords: Microcystis; Pangenome; Toxicity; Diversity; Classification
Strain(s): 8810229884324812549 
PubMed: 35287927
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2022.102186

Park, B. S., Park, C.-S., Shin, Y., Yoon, S., Han, M.-S., Kang, Y.-H. 2022 Different algicidal modes of the two bacteria Aeromonas bestiarum HYD0802-MK36 and Pseudomonas syringae KACC10292T against harmful cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. Toxins, 14, 128 (article ID).
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; algicidal bacteria; Aeromonas bestiarum; Pseudomonas syringe; algicidal modes
Strain(s): 94298 
PubMed: 35202155
DOI: 10.3390/toxins14020128

Jung, J, Baek, J. H., Lee, Y., Jeong, S. E., Jeon, C. O. 2022 The self-Bleaching process of Microcystis aeruginosa is delayed by a symbiotic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. MAE1-K and promoted by methionine deficiency. Microbiol. Spectr., 10, e0181422 (article ID).
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; bleaching; methionine deficiency; Pseudomonas; metZ mutant; bleaching compounds
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 35771009
DOI: 10.1128/spectrum.01814-22

Harada, K. 2022 Elucidation of phenomena involving cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystem by chemically ecological approach. YAKUGAKU ZASSHI, 142, 39-64 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: chemical ecology; water bloom, β-cyclocitral, density stress, quorum sensing
Strain(s): 102298843 
DOI: 10.1248/yakushi.21-00146

Chia, M. A., Ameh, I., George, K. C., Balogun, E. O., Akinyemi, S. A., Lorenzi, A. S. 2022 Genetic diversity of microcystin producers (cyanobacteria) and microcystin congeners in aquatic resources across Africa: A review paper. Toxins, 10, 772 (article ID).
Keywords: biological risk; cyanobacteria; cyanotoxin; water supply; African continent; molecular markers; mcy genes
Strain(s): 89102298843 
PubMed: 36548605
DOI: 10.3390/toxics10120772

do Amaral, S. C., Monteiro, P. R., Neto, J. d. S. P., Serra, G. M., Gonçalves, E. C., Xavier, L. P., Santos, A. V. 2021 Current knowledge on microviridin from cyanobacteria. Mar. Drugs, 19, 17 (article ID).
Keywords: biotechnology; cyanobacteria; ecology; microviridin; oligopeptide
Strain(s): 2988341211 
PubMed: 33406599
DOI: 10.3390/md19010017

Jeong, S.-Y. & Son, H.-J. 2021 Effects of mycosubtilin homolog algicides from a marine bacterium, Bacillus sp. SY-1, against the harmful algal bloom species Cochlodinium polykrikoides. J. Microbiol., 59, 389-400.
Keywords: algicide; Bacillus sp. SY-1; Cochlodinium polykrikoides; harmful algal bloom; mycosubtilin
Strain(s): 23227238298316446682 
PubMed: 33779952
DOI: 10.1007/s12275-021-1086-8

Arii, S., Yamashita, R., Tsuji, K., Tomita, K., Hasegawa, M., Bober, B., Harada, K. 2021 Differences in susceptibility of cyanobacteria species to lytic volatile organic compounds and influence on seasonal succession. Chemosphere, 284, 131378 (article ID).
Keywords: Susceptibility; Volatile organic compounds (VOCs); β-Cyclocitral; Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC); Seasonal succession
Strain(s): 10211229880884316421652167716961728 
PubMed: 34217930
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131378

Li, B., Li, J., An, G., Zhao, C., Wang, C. 2021 Long-term and strong suppression against Microcystis growth and microcystin-release by luteolin continuous-release microsphere: Optimal construction, characterization, effects and proteomic mechanisms. Water Res., 202, 117448 (article ID).
Keywords: Continuous-release microsphere; Long-term algicidal effect; Luteolin; Microcystin; Microcystis-dominated cyanobacterial bloom; Proteomic mechanism
Strain(s): 102298 
PubMed: 34364065
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117448

Asukabe, H., Akahori, S., Ueno, E., Nakayama, T., Yamashita, R., Arii, S., Harada, K., Imanishi, S. Y. 2020 Cyanobacterial classification with the toxicity using MALDI Biotyper. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 31, 1572-1578.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; MALDI Biotyper; microcystins; profiling
Strain(s): 27394273818789100101102103104105107111112207208230266298416433478510512515592593604611808809835843846847905928931932945981989102510431058106110641068106910711076108510991101110511131115112611331134113511441157121516421643165216681672167316771678169820872131241226653708373337343736375537563757 
PubMed: 32501712
DOI: 10.1021/jasms.0c00148

Zhang, P., MacTavish, B. S., Yang, G., Chen, M., Roh, J., Newsome, K. R., Bruner, S. D., Ding, Y. 2020 Cyanobacterial dihydroxyacid dehydratases are a promising growth inhibition target. ACS Chem. Biol., 15, 2281–2288.
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 32786290
DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.0c00507

Chen, M., Tian, L.-L., Ren, C.-Y., Xu, C.-Y., Wang, Y.-Y., Li, L. 2019 Extracellular polysaccharide synthesis in a bloom-forming strain of Microcystis aeruginosa: implications for colonization and buoyancy. Sci Rep, 9, 1251 (article ID).
Strain(s): 87889820429884324812549 
PubMed: 30718739
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-37398-6

Park, B. S., Kim, S., Kim. J.-H., Kim, J. H., Han, M.-S. 2019 Dynamics of Amoebophrya parasites during recurrent blooms of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Korean coastal waters. Harmful Algae, 84, 119-126.
Keywords: Amoebophrya; Bloom dynamics; Cochlodinium polykrikoides ; Parasitism; Uantitative real-time PCR
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 31128796
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2019.02.001

Kim, M., Shin, B., Lee, J., Park, H. Y., Park, W. 2019 Culture-independent and culture-dependent analyses of the bacterial community in the phycosphere of cyanobloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa. Sci Rep, 9, 20416 (article ID).
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 31892695
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-56882-1

Tanabe, Y., Hodoki, Y., Sano, T., Tada, K., Watanabe, MM. 2018a Adaptation of the freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to brackish water is driven by recent horizontal transfer of sucrose genes. Front. Microbiol., 9, 1150 (article ID).
Keywords: Microcystis; bloom; salt tolerance; sucrose; genomics; brackish water; horizontal gene trasnfer; ecotype
Strain(s): 4487888990919899100101102103104105107108109112298299478604843901105010521059106310671069107010751076108510931094109811001101110211041105110611071108111311141115112211281130113111321134113911411142114311441150117011741175117611771179118111831185121112131214121512321234123812391252208820902091246524662467246824692470247124722473247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249424952546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561259225942595259625972598259926002601260226032604260526062607260826102611261226132617261826192620262126222623262426252626262826294234 
PubMed: 29922255
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01150

Lee, J.-Y. & Jeong, S.-Y. 2018 Characteristics and effects of algal-lytic bacterium for control of fresh water microalgae. J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 13, 2803-2808.
Keywords: Algal blooms; algal-lytic activity; fresh microalgae; Microcystis aeruginosa; Pseudomonas sp. JS-9; substance
Strain(s): 298 

Imanishi, S. Y., Nakayama, T., Asukabe, H., Harada, K. 2017 Application of MALDI Biotyper to cyanobacterial profiling. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 31, 325-332.
Strain(s): 738910210310711229861180880983584398910251043105810711099164216521672 
PubMed: 27862451
DOI: 10.1002/rcm.7793

Joo, J. C., Ahn, C. H., Lee, S., Jang, D-G., Lee, W. H., Ryu, B. R. 2016 Algal growth potential of Microcystis aeruginosa from reclaimed water. Water Environ. Res., 88, 54-62.
Keywords: algal growth potential (AGP); Microcystis aeruginosa; reclaimed water; recreational water reuse; soluble reactive phosphorus; wastewater reclamation plant
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 26803027
DOI: 10.2175/106143015X14365865227797

Kang, Y-H., Kang, S-K., Park, C-S., Joo, J-H., Lee, J-W., Han, M-S. 2016 Use of lactic acid bacteria as a biological agent against the cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae. J. Appl. Phycol., 28, 1747-1757.
Keywords: Lactic acidbacteria; Cyanobacteriacidalbacteria; Anabaena flos-aquae; Biological control
Strain(s): 7594298 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-015-0701-7

Anas, A. R. J., Nakajima, A., Naruse, C., Tone, M., Asukabe, H., Harada, K. 2016 Determination of fVIIa-sTF inhibitors in toxic Microcystis cyanobacteria by LC-MS technique. Mar. Drugs, 14, 7 (article ID).
Keywords: cyanobacteria; toxic Microcystis; anticoagulant; fVIIa-sTF inhibitors; peptides; aeruginosins; blood coagulation cascade
Strain(s): 891021031072981025104310581071108510991133 
PubMed: 26729138
DOI: 10.3390/md14010007

Honda, T., Takahashi, H., Sako, Y., Yoshida, T. 2014 Gene expression of Microcystis aeruginosa during infection of cyanomyovirus Ma-LMM01. Fish. Sci., 80, 83-91.
Keywords: Cyanophage; Ma-LMM01; Microcystis aeruginosa; Transcriptional regulation; Auxiliary; metabolic genes
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1007/s12562-013-0685-7

Yoshida, T., Kamiji, R., Nakamura, G., Kaneko, T., Sako, Y. 2014 Membrane-like protein involved in phage adsorption associated with phage-sensitivity in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Harmful Algae, 34, 69-75.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Microcystis aeruginosa; Cyanophage; Phage resistance
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2014.03.001

Kataoka, T., Homma, T., Nakano, S., Hodoki, Y., Ohbayashi, K., Kondo, R. 2013 PCR primers for selective detection of intra-species variations in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis. Harmful Algae, 23, 46-54.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; Quantitative PCR; 16S-23S rDNA ITS fegion; Selective detection; Intra-species variation
Strain(s): 4487909810110210310711111229860410621070 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2012.12.003

Yoshida, T., Takashima, Y., Tomaru Y., Shirai, Y., Takao, Y., Hiroishi, S., Nagasaki, K. 2012 Intricate interactions between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and foreign genetic elements, revealed by diversified clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) signatures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 78, 5353-5360.
Strain(s): 87102298 
PubMed: 22636003
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.00626-12

Yoshida, T., Takashima, Y., Tomaru Y., Shirai, Y., Takao, Y., Hiroishi, S., Nagasaki, K. 2012 A protein binding to an upstream sequence of ftsZ involved in coordination of DNA replication and cell division in Microcystis aeruginosa. Fish. Sci., 78, 375-379.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Microcystis; Cell division; DNA replication; ftsZ
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1007/s12562-011-0442-8

Rhee, JS., Ki, JS., Kim, BM., Hwang, SJ., Choi, IY., Lee, JS. 2012 HspA and HtpG Enhance Thermotolerance in the Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-298. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 22, 118-125.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Microcystis aeruginosa; heat shock protein; thermotolerance
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 22297228
DOI: 10.4014/jmb.1108.08001

Rhee, JS., Choi, BS., Han, J., Hwang, SJ., Choi, IY., Lee, JS. 2012 Draft genome database construction from four strains (NIES-298, FCY-26, -27, and -28) of the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 22, 1208-1213.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Microcystis aeruginosa; genome
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 22814493
DOI: 10.4014/jmb.1112.12034

Kang, Y.-H., Park, C.-S., Han, M.-S. 2012 Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCBPP-PA14 a useful bacterium capable of lysing Microcystis aeruginosa cells and degrading microcystins. J. Appl. Phycol., 24, 1517-1525.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; Microcystins; Algicidal bacteria; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Strain(s): 4494298 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-012-9812-6

Yoshida-Takashima, Y., Yoshida, M., Ogata, H., Nagasaki, K., Hiroishi, S., Yoshida, T. 2012 Cyanophage infection in the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa in surface freshwater. Microbes Environ., , 350-355.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanophage; non-bleaching gene (nblA); phycobilisome; Microcystis
Strain(s): 298843 
PubMed: 23047146
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME12037

Tanabe, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 2011 Local expansion of a panmictic lineage of water bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. PLoS One, 6, e17085 (article ID).
Strain(s): 4487888990919899100101102103104105106107108109110111112298299478604843901105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107210751076107710851090109110921093109410951096109710981100110111021103110411051106110711081113111411151122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311551156115711591160116111621163116411701171117211731174117511761177117911801181118311841185118612091211121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245125112521253125420882089209020912465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249625422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561259125922593259425952596259725982599260026012602260326042605260626072608260926102611261226132617261826192620262126222623262426252626262726282629 
PubMed: 21390221
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017085

Weiz, A. R., Ishida, K., Makower, K., Ziemert, N., Hertweck, C., Dittmann, E. 2011 Leader peptide and a membrane protein scaffold guide the biosynthesis of the tricyclic peptide microviridin. Chem. Biol., 18, 1413-1421.
Strain(s): 298843 
PubMed: 22118675
DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2011.09.011

Yoshida, M., Yoshida, T., Yoshida-Takashima, Y., Kashima, A., Hiroishi, S. 2010 Real-time PCR detection of host-mediated cyanophage gene transcripts during infection of a natural Microcystis aeruginosa population. Microbes Environ., 25, 211-215.
Keywords: cyanophage; Microcystis aeruginosa; real-time RT-PCR; succession; toxic cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME10117

Kuno, S., Yoshida, T., Kamikawa, R., Hosoda, N., Sako, Y. 2010 The distribution of a phage-related insertion sequence element in the cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa. Microbes Environ., 25, 295-301.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Microcystis; cyanophage; insertion sequence; horizontal gene transfer
Strain(s): 90919899101102112298604843105810671070108610981105 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME10125

Fujise, D., Tsuji, K., Fukushima, N., Kawai, K., Harada, K. 2010 Analytical aspects of cyanobacterial volatile organic compounds for investigation of their production behavior. J. Chromatogr. A, 1217, 6122-6125.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Volatile organic compounds; Analysis; b-Cyclocitral; 2-Methyl-1-butanol; 3-Methyl-1-butanol; SPME
Strain(s): 87298 
DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.07.008

Tanabe, Y., Sano, T., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M. 2009b Recombination, cryptic clades and neutral molecular divergence of the microcystin synthetase (mcy) genes of toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. BMC Evol. Biol., 9, 115 (article ID).
Strain(s): 44878889909198991001011021031041051061071081091101111122982994786048439011050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701072107510761077108510901091109210931094109510961097109811001101110211031104110511061107110811131114111511221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115511561157115911601161116211631164117011711172120912111213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451251125212531254246524662467246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792561 
PubMed: 19463155
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-115

Harada, K-I., Ozaki, K., Tsuzuki, S., Kato, H., Hasegawa, M., Kuroda, E. K., Arii, S., Tsuji, K. 2009 Blue color formation of cyanobacteria with b-cyclocitral. J. Chem. Ecol., 35, 1295-1301.
Keywords: b-cyclocitral; cyanobacteria; lysis; blue color formation; acid stress
Strain(s): 73102103112298611808 
PubMed: 19936836
DOI: 10.1007/s10886-009-9706-5

Ozaki, K., Ito, E., Tanabe, S., Natsume, K., Tsuji, K., Harada, K. 2009 Electron microscopic study on lysis of a cyanobacterium Microcystis. J. Health Sci., 55, 578-585.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; scanning electron microscope; transmission electron microscope; morphological change; b-cyclocitral; L-lysine
Strain(s): 102298 
DOI: 10.1248/jhs.55.578

Park, M.-H., Kim, B.-H., Chung, I. M., Hwang, S.-J. 2009 Selective bactericidal potential of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) full extract on Microcystis strain in comparison with green algae and zooplankton. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 83, 97-101.
Keywords: Rice hull extract; Selective control; Microcystis aeruginosa; Green alga; Zooplankton
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 19434356
DOI: 10.1007/s00128-009-9732-6

Cadel-Six, S., Dauga, C., Castets, A. M., Rippka, R., Bouchier, C., de Marsac, N. T., Welker, M. 2008 Halogenase genes in nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters of Microcystis (Cyanobacteria): sporadic distribution and evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol., 25, 2031-2041.
Keywords: halogenase; cyanopeptolin; aeruginosin; DNA rearrangement; secondary peptide metabolite; chlorination; internal transcribed spacer; phylogeny
Strain(s): 8998101102298 
PubMed: 18614525
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msn150

Yoshida, T., Nagasaki, K., Takashima, Y., Shirai, Y., Tomaru, Y., Takao, Y., Sakamoto, S., Hiroishi, S., Ogata, H. 2008 Ma-LMM01 infecting toxic Microcystis aeruginosa illuminates diverse cyanophage genome strategies. J. Bacteriol., 190, 1762-1772.
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 18065537
DOI: 10.1128/JB.01534-07

Yoshida, M., Yoshida, T., Satomi, M., Takashima, Y., Hosoda, N., Hiroishi, S. 2008 Intra-specific phenotypic and genotypic variation in toxic cyanobacterial Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Appl. Phycol., 105, 407-415.
Keywords: API ZYM; diversity; microcystin; Microcystis; phylogeny; population; taxonomy; toxic; cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 101102103112298604105510581062107010911105 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03754.x

Ziemert, N., Ishida, K., Quillardet, P., Bouchier, C., Hertweck, C., de Marsac, N. T., Dittmann, E. 2008 Microcyclamide biosynthesis in two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa: from structure to genes and vice versa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 74, 1791-1797.
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 18245249
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02392-07

Jung, S. W., Kim, B.-H., Katano, T., Kong, D.-S., Han, M.-S. 2008 Pseudomonas flurescens HYK0210-SK09 offers species-specific biological control of winter algal blooms caused by freshwater diatom Stephanodiscus hantzschii. J. Appl. Microbiol., 105, 186-195.
Keywords: algicidal bacterium; algicidal mechanism; biological control; indoor mesocosm; Pseudomonas fluorescens; Stephanodiscus hantzschii
Strain(s): 1944298 
PubMed: 18266701
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03733.x

Ozaki, K., Ohta, A., Iwata, C., Horikawa, A., Tsuji, K., Ito, E., Ikai, Y., Harada, K-I. 2008 Lysis of cyanobacteria with volatile organic compounds. Chemosphere, 71, 1531-1538.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Lysis; Microorganism; Volatile compound; b-Cyclocitral
Strain(s): 73102103112298 
PubMed: 18179811
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.052

Kim, B.-H., Sang, M., Hwang, S.-J., Han, M.-S. 2008 In situ bacterial mitigation of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa: implications for biological bloom control. Limnol. Oceanogr. Meth., 6, 513-522.
Strain(s): 1944101298 
DOI: 10.4319/lom.2008.6.513

Yoshida, M., Yoshida, T., Takashima, Y., Hosoda, N., Hiroishi, S. 2007 Dynamics of microcystin-producing and non-producing Microcystis populations is correlated with nitrate concentration in a Japanese lake. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 266, 49-53.
Keywords: microcystin; Microcystis; peptide synthetase; population dynamics; real-time PCR; toxic cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 17092296
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00496.x

Tanabe, Y., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M. 2007 Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) reveals high genetic diversity and clonal population structure of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Microbiology, 153, 3695-3703.
Strain(s): 44878889909198991001011021031041051061071081091101111122982994786048439019331050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701072107510761077108510901091109210931094109510961097109811001101110211031104110511061107110811131114111511221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115511561157115911601161116211631164117011711172120912111213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451251125212531254 
PubMed: 17975077
DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.2007/010645-0

Honjo, M., Matsui, K., Ueki, M., Nakamura, R., Fuhrman, J. A., Kawabata, Z. 2006 Diversity of virus-like agents killing Microcystis aeruginosa in a hyper-eutrophic pond. J. Plankton Res., 28, 407-412.
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbi128

Yoshida, T., Takashima, Y., Tomaru Y., Shirai, Y., Takao, Y., Hiroishi, S., Nagasaki, K. 2006 Isolation and characterization of a cyanophage infecting the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72, 1239-1247.
Strain(s): 44879098102104111112298604 
PubMed: 16461672
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.2.1239-1247.2006

Yoshida, T., Maki, M., Okamoto, H., Hiroishi, S. 2005 Coordination of DNA replication and cell division in cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 251, 149-154.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cell division; DNA replication; FtsZ; Microcystis
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 16112821
DOI: 10.1016/j.femsle.2005.07.041

Oshimi, M., Fujimoto, N., Ohnishi, A., Suzuki, M., Akiba, M., Kunikane, S. 2005 Isolation of bacteria lysing musty odor producing alga Phormidium tenue and its lytic characteristics. J. Jpn. Soc. Wat. Environ., 28, 379-384 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: alga-lytic bacteria; musty odor; Phormidium tenue; Pseudomonas KA6
Strain(s): 96211227244298512817 
DOI: 10.2965/jswe.28.379

Hee-jin, C., Baik-ho, K., Jeong-dong, K., Myung-soo, H. 2005 Streptomyces neyagawaensis as a control for the hazardous biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in eutrophic freshwaters. Biol. Control, 33, 335-343.
Keywords: Antialgal bacterium; Streptomyces neyagawaensis; Microcystis aeruginosa; Biological control; Freshwater; Cyanobacterial bloom
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.03.007

Takanami, R., Ozaki, H., Hayashi, S., Yamada, O., Sumino, T. 2004 Algal growth control with mud gels and silver-contained ceramics. Environ. Eng. Res., 41, 429-436 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: algal bloom; mud gels; silver-contained ceramics
Strain(s): 298 

Furusato, E., Asaeda, T., Manatunge, J. 2004 Tolerance for prolonged darkness of three phytoplankton species, Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae), Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyceae), and Melosira ambigua (Bacillariophyceae). Hydrobiologia, 527, 153-162.
Keywords: algal bloom; artificial circulation; community succession; darkness tolerance; phytoplankton
Strain(s): 96298 
DOI: 10.1023/B:HYDR.0000043198.08168.d3

Hirabayashi, R. & Imamura, N. 2003 Action mechanism of a selective anti-cyanobacterial compound, argimicin A. J. Antibiotics, 56, 154-159.
Strain(s): 414581102204230298592 
PubMed: 12715875
DOI: 10.7164/antibiotics.56.154

Yamaguchi, T., Kobayashi, Y., Adachi, K., Imamura, N. 2003 Argimicins B and C, new anti-cyanobacterial compounds produced by Sphingomonas sp. M-17. J. Antibiot., 56, 655-657.
Strain(s): 4581102230298592 
PubMed: 14513910
DOI: 10.7164/antibiotics.56.655

Yoshida, T., Yuki, Y., Lei, S., Chinen, H., Yoshida, M., Kondo, R., Hiroishi, S. 2003 Quantitative detection of toxic strains of the cyanobacterial genus Microcystis by competitive PCR. Microbes Environ., 18, 16-23.
Keywords: competitive PCR; microcystin; Microcystis; peptide synthetase; toxic cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 87888990102104105106108109110111112298299604 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.18.16

Fujii, K., Yahashi, Y., Nakano, T., Imanishi, S., Baldia, S. F., Harada, K. 2002 Simultaneous detection and determination of the absolute configuration of thiazole-containing amino acids in a peptide. Tetrahedron, 58, 6873-6879.
Keywords: microcyclamide; absolute configuration; advanced Marfey's method; thiazole-containing (TZL-) amino acid
Strain(s): 101298 
DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4020(02)00748-2

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 192122232425262728293031323334353637383940414445465051525354555658596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310312313329334337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Nishibe, Y., Kawabata, Z., Nakano, S. 2002 Grazing on Microcystis aeruginosa by the heterotrophic flagellate Collodictyon triciliatum in a hypertrophic pond. Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 29, 173-179.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; heterotrophic flagellate; digestion; grazing rate
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.3354/ame029173

Yuki, Y., Yoshida, T., Hiroishi, S. 2002 Molecular detection of the toxic cyanobacteria [Yûdoku aoko no bunshi-shikibetsu to yosatsu he-no ôyô]. In Series of Fisheries Science Vol. 143, Prevention and Extermination Strategies of Harmful Algal Blooms [Suisan-gaku shirîzu 134, Yûgai-yûdoku sôrui burûmu no yobô to kujo] , Eds. by Hiroishi, S., Imai, I. & Ishimaru, T., Koseisha-Koseikaku, Tokyo, pp. 43-53 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 738187888990919899100101102104105106108109110111112204230298299604 

Furusato, E., Asaeda, T., Fukuwatari, T. 2001 Tolerance against prolonged darkness of three freshwater phytoplankton. J. Jpn. Soc. Wat. Environ., 1, 27-34 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: artificial circulation; phytoplankton; dark survival; community succession; Microcystis aeruginosa
Strain(s): 96298 
DOI: 10.2965/jswe.24.27

Imamura, N., Motoike, I., Noda, M., Adachi, K., Konno, A., Fukami, H. 2000 Argimicin A, a novel anti-cyanobacterial compound produced by an algae-lysing bacterium. J. Antibiotics, 53, 1317-1319.
Strain(s): 102298 
DOI: 10.7164/antibiotics.53.1317

Ishida, K., Nakagawa, H., Murakami, M. 2000 Microcyclamide, a cytotoxic cyclic hexapeptide from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Nat. Prod., 63, 1315-1317.
Strain(s): 298 
PubMed: 11000050
DOI: 10.1021/np000159p

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 2000 Genetic typing of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis in Japan using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Plankton Biol. Ecol., 47, 1-6.
Keywords: genetic typing; 16S rDNA; Microcystis; cyanobacteria; phylogenetic analysis
Strain(s): 878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Komura, M., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 2000 Molecular taxonomy of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 47, 25-33 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Microcystis; bacterial criteria; molecular analysis
Strain(s): 6878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 

Kondo, R., Yoshida, T., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S. 2000 DNA-DNA reassociation among a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 50, 767-770.
Keywords: DNA hybridization; DNA G+C content; cyanobacteria; Microcystis
Strain(s): 878998102104111112298604 
PubMed: 10758887
DOI: 10.1099/00207713-50-2-767

Ishida, K., Okita, Y., Matsuda, H., Okino, T., Murakami, M. 1999 Aeruginosins, protease inhibitors from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Tetrahedron, 55, 10971-10988.
Strain(s): 8998298 
DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4020(99)00621-3

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M., Hata, Y. 1999 Rapid DNA extraction from a bloom-forming cyanobacterium. Microbes Environ., 14, 157-161.
Keywords: DNA extraction; PCR; Microcystis; cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.14.157

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 1998 Taxonomy of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 64, 291-292 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 87888990919899100101102104105106107108109110111112298299604 

Li, R., Yokota, A., Sugiyama, J., Watanabe, M., Hiroki, M., Watanabe, M. M. 1998 Chemotaxonomy of planktonic cyanobacteria based on non-polar and 3-hydroxy fatty acid composition. Phycol. Res., 46, 21-28.
Keywords: 3-hydroxy fatty acids; chemotaxonomy; fatty acid; non-polar fatty acids; planktonic cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 2740447678798081878998102104111112204205207298604810821825826 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.1998.tb00093.x

Ward, C. J., Beattie, K. A., Lee, E. Y. C., Codd, G. A. 1997 Colorimetric protein phosphatase inhibition assay of laboratory strains and natural blooms of cyanobacteria: comparisons with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis for microcystins. FEMS Mircobiol. Lett., 153, 465-473.
Keywords: Microcystin; Protein phosphatase; Cyanobacteria; High-performance liquid chromatography
Strain(s): 42102103104298595 
PubMed: 9271876
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1997.tb12611.x

Sakamoto, S., Yamaguchi, M., Watanabe, M. F., Watanabe, M., Kamiya, H. 1996 Distribution and characterization of lectins from natural and cultured Microcystis spp. In Harmful and Toxic Algal Blooms, Eds. by Yasumoto, T., Oshima, Y. & Fukuyo, Y., Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO 1996, pp. 569-572.
Strain(s): 1001021062981057106110661080 

Lee, T., Tsuzuki, M., Takeuchi, T., Yokoyama, K., Karube, I. 1995 Quantitative determination of cyanobacteria in mixed phytoplankton assemblages by an in vivo fluorimetric method. Anal. Chim. Acta, 302, 81-87.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; quantitative estimation; phycocyanin; waterblooms; Microcystis aeruginosa
Strain(s): 298512 
DOI: 10.1016/0003-2670(94)00425-L

Neilan, B. A., Jacobs, D., Goodman, A. E. 1995 Genetic diversity and phylogeny of toxic cyanobacteria determined by DNA polymorphisms within the phycocyanin locus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61, 3875-3883.
Strain(s): 244041447376788081878998102107111112204207298 
PubMed: 8526499

Okino, T., Matsuda, H., Murakami, M., Yamaguchi, K. 1995 New microviridins, elastase inhibitors from the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa. Tetrahedron, 51, 10679-10686.
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1016/0040-4020(95)00645-O

Lee, T., Tsuzuki, M., Takeuchi, T., Yokoyama, K., Karube, I. 1994 In vivo fluorometric method for early detection of cyanobacterial waterblooms. J. Appl. Phycol., 6, 489-495.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; waterblooms; in vivo fluorescence; monitoring; Microcystis aeruginosa
Strain(s): 298512 

Murakami, M., Okita, Y., Matsuda, H., Okino, T., Yamaguchi, K. 1994 Aeruginosin 298-A, a thrombin and trypsin inhibitor from the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (NIES-298). Tetrahedron Letters, 35, 3129-3132.
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(00)76848-1

Kasai, F., Takamura, N., Hatakeyama, S. 1993 Effects of simetryne on growth of various freshwater algal taxa. Environ. Pollut., 79, 77-83.
Strain(s): 35447377102137151230231255275280298 
DOI: 10.1016/0269-7491(93)90180-V

Hanazato, T. 1991 Interrelations between Microcystis and Cladocera in the highly eutrophic Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol., 76, 21-36.
Keywords: Microcystis; Cladocera; toxicity; food chain; Lake Kasumigaura
Strain(s): 44298299 
DOI: 10.1002/iroh.19910760104

Watanabe, M. F., Oishi, S., Watanabe, Y., Watanabe, M. 1986 Strong probability of lethal toxicity in the blue-green alga Microcystis viridis Lemmermann. J. Phycol., 22, 552-556.
Strain(s): 981001011031122981053105410551058105910671091 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1986.tb02502.x

Watanabe, M. M., Suda, S., Kasai, F., Sawaguchi, T. 1985 Axenic cultures of the three species of Microcystis (Cyanophyta = Cyanobacteria). Bull. JFCC, 1, 57-63.
Strain(s): 89102107111298 

Allen, M. B. 1959 Studies with Cyanidium caldarium, an anomalously pigmented chlorophyte. Arch. Mikrobiol., 32, 270-277.
Strain(s): 298 
DOI: 10.1007/BF00409348

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