Strain number NIES-4118  
Phylum Dinophyta  
Class Dinophyceae  
Scientific name Gambierdiscus scabrosus T.Nishimura, Shinya Sato & M.Adachi  
Former name  
Common name Dinoflagellate  
Locality (Date of collection) Ushiro Beach, Kashiwa Isl., Otsuki, Kochi, Japan (2007-09-22)  
Latitude / Longitude 32.772778 / 132.625278 
Habitat (Isolation source) Marine (Seaweed)  
History < Nakamura, Masatoshi; Adachi, Masao  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Nakamura, Masatoshi (2007-09-**)  
Identified by Nishimura, Tomohiro; Sato, Shinya; Adachi, Masao  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Non-axenic  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  MNK  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  6 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  45 D  
Gene information 18S rRNA ( AB764244 AB764245 AB764246 AB764247 AB764248 ) , 28S rRNA ( AB765908 AB765909 )  
Cell size (min - max) 49 - 83 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics Toxicity ; Attached ; Authentic strain (Nishimura et al. 2014)  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : KW070922_1  
Remarks Toxicity 
Pisapia, F., Holland, W. C., Hardison, D. R., e Litake, R. W., Fraga, S., Nishimura, T., Adachi, M., Nguyen-Ngoc, L., Séchet, V., Amzil, Z., Herrenknecht, C., Hess, P. 2017 Toxicity screening of 13 Gambierdiscus strains using neuro-2a and erythrocyte lysis bioassays. Harmful Algae, 63, 173-183.
Keywords: Ciguatera fish poisoning; Gambierdiscus; Ciguatoxins; Maitotoxins; Neuro-2a assay; Erythrocyte lysis assay
Strain(s): 4118 
PubMed: 28366392
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.02.005

Pisapia, F., Sibat, .M., Herrenknecht, C., Lhaut, K., Gaiani, G., Ferron, P., Fessard, V., Fraga, S., Nascimento, S. M., Litaker, R. W., Holland, W. C., Roullier, C., Hess, P. 2017 Maitotoxin-4, a novel MTX analog produced by Gambierdiscus excentricus. Mar. Drugs, 15, 220 (article ID).
Keywords: Gambierdiscus excentricus; maitotoxin-4; bioguided fractionation; size-exclusion chromatography (LH-20); neuro-2a (N2a) assay; LC-HRMS/MS (Q-Tof 6550); LC-LRMS/MS (API4000 QTrap)
Strain(s): 41184119 
PubMed: 28696398
DOI: 10.3390/md15070220

Nishimura, T., Hariganeya, N., Tawong, W., Sakanari, H., Yamaguchi, H., Adachi, M. 2016 Quantitative PCR assay for detection and enumeration of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Gonyaulacales) in coastal areas of Japan. Harmful Algae, 52, 11-22.
Keywords: Ciguatera fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate; Gambierdiscus; Japan: Quantitative PCR assay
Strain(s): 411841194120 
PubMed: 28073467
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2015.11.018

Yoshimatsu, T., Tie, C., Yamaguchi, H., Funaki, H., Honma, C., Tanaka, K., Adachi, M. 2016 The effects of light intensity on the growth of Japanese Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae, 60, 107-115.
Keywords: Ciguatera; Gambierdiscus; Growth; Ligh
Strain(s): 411841194120 
PubMed: 28073553
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2016.10.009

Nishimura, T., Sato, S., Tawong, W., Sakanari, H., Yamaguchi, H., Adachi, M. 2014 Morphology of Gambierdiscus scabrosus sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales): a new epiphytic toxic dinoflagellate from coastal areas of Japan. J. Phycol., 50, 506-514.
Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; epiphytic; dinoflagellate; Gambierdiscus scabrosus; Japan; LM; morphology; SEM; taxonomy
Strain(s): 4118 
PubMed: 26988323
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12175

Yoshimatsu, T., Yamaguchi, H., Iwamoto, H., Nishimura, T., Adachi, M. 2014 Effects of temperature, salinity and their interaction on growth of Japanese Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae, 35, 29-37.
Keywords: Ciguatera; Japanese Gambierdiscus; Growth; Temperature; Salinity
Strain(s): 411841194120 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2014.03.007

Hariganeya, N., Tanimoto, Y., Yamaguchi, H., Nishimura, T., Tawong, W., Sakanari, H., Yoshimatsu, T., Sato, S., Preston, C. M., Adachi, M. 2013 Quantitative PCR method for enumeration of cells of cryptic species of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Ostreopsis spp. in Coastal Waters of Japan. PLoS One, 8, e57627 (article ID).
Strain(s): 4118 
PubMed: 23593102
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057627

Nishimura, T., Sato, S., Tawong, W., Sakanari, H., Uehara, K., Shah, M.M., Suda, S., Yasumoto, T., Taira, Y., Yamaguchi, H., Adachi, M. 2013 Genetic diversity and distribution of the ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in coastal areas of Japan. PLoS One, 8, e60882 (article ID).
Strain(s): 411841194120 
PubMed: 23593339
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060882

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