A big image opens when the thumbnail is clicked.(nies-0001.jpg)
Strain number NIES-1  
Phylum Heterokontophyta  
Class Raphidophyceae  
Scientific name Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Y.Hara & Chihara var. antiqua (Hada) Demura & Kawachi  
Synonym Hemieutreptia antiqua Hada 1974; Chattonella antiqua (Hada) Ono 1980  
Former name Chattonella antiqua (Hada) Ono  
Common name  
Locality (Date of collection) Harima-Nada, Seto Inland Sea Japan (1978-09-**)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Marine (Seawater)  
History < Watanabe, Makoto M.  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Watanabe, Makoto M. (1978-09-**)  
Identified by Watanabe, Makoto M.  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2018 Feb]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  f/2ESM  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  21 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  1 M  
Gene information 18S rRNA ( AF136761 AB217626 ) , ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ( AB334307 ) , 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ( AB217648 ) , 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S ( AB286925 ) , 28S rRNA ( AF210737 AB217631 ) , CaAUREO1 mRNA ( AB499043 ) , CO2, CO1 ( AB286901 ) , CO1 ( AF037990 AB334444 AB445404 ) , rbcL ( AB280604 AB334371 )  
Cell size (min - max) 30 - 150 μm  
Organization Unicellular; Flagellate 
Characteristics Red tide  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : Ho-1  
Remarks Fragile species to transportation stresses; Read and agree "How to order 4.1"; Axenic 
Movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpteI9qf_UQ&list=PLFTJlLsZcVbiJY3ygYAPKeVOfDdOh9UEW&index=10  
Shikata, T., Kitatsuji, S., Yuasa, K. 2023 Strain, cell density, and nutrient condition affect patterns of diurnal vertical migration and superoxide production in a red-tide alga. Front. Cell. Dev. Biol., 11, 1134227 (article ID).
Strain(s): 1 
PubMed: 37123416
DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2023.1134227

Yamasaki, Y., Kameo, S., Wada, Y., Kitatsuji, S., Yuasa, K., Shikata, T. 2023 Toxicological risk assessment of harmful algal species using the rotifer exposure test. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 70, 52-61 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Brachionus plicatilis; Dinophyceae; harmful algal bloom species; lethal effect on rotifers; Raphidophyceae
Strain(s): 1324 
DOI: 10.24763/bpsj.70.2_52

Yamasaki, Y., Hirayama, R., Yamamoto, A., Yuasa, K., Shikata, T. 2022 Effects of micronutrients on the detection of extracellular superoxide produced by the harmful raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua in culture. J. Plankton Res., 44, 36–47.
Keywords: Chattonella; fish mortality; harmful algal bloom; manganese; reactive oxygen species; superoxide
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbab087

Shimasaki, Y., Mukai, K., Takai, Y., Qiu, X., Oshima, Y. 2021 Recent progress in the study of peroxiredoxin in the harmful algal bloom species Chattonella marina. Antioxidants, 10, 162 (article ID).
Keywords: 2-Cys peroxiredoxin; antioxidant enzyme; growth potential; photosynthesis; oxidative stress
Strain(s): 13 
PubMed: 33499182
DOI: 10.3390/antiox10020162

Al-Azab, A. J. S., Widyaningrum, D., Hirakawa, H., Hayashi, Y., Tanaka, S., Ohama, T. 2021 A resin cyanoacrylate nanoparticle as an acute cell death inducer to broad spectrum of microalgae. Algal Res., 54, 102191 (article ID).
Keywords: Cell death; Coccolith; Non-green algae; ROS; Poly (isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles
Strain(s): 1571527433153459061569971290010171308131027642778 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2021.102191

Shikata, T., Yuasa, K., Kitatsuji, S., Sakamoto, S., Akita, K., Fujinami, Y., Nishiyama, Y., Kotake, T., Tanaka, R., Yamasaki, Y. 2021 Superoxide Production by the Red Tide-Producing Chattonella marina Complex (Raphidophyceae) Correlates with Toxicity to Aquacultured Fishes. Antioxidants, 10, 1635 (article ID).
Keywords: harmful algal bloom; interstrain variation; oxidant stress; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
Strain(s): 1 
PubMed: 34679769
DOI: 10.3390/antiox10101635

Qiu, X., Mukai, K., Shimasaki, Y., Wu, M., Chen, C., Lu, Y., Ichinose, H., Nakashima, T., Kato-Unoki, Y., Oshima, Y. 2020 Diurnal variations in expression of photosynthesis-related proteins in the harmful Raphidophyceae Chattonella marina var. antiqua. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 527, 151361 (article ID).
Keywords: Chattonella marina var. antiqua; Diurnal variations; Proteomics; Photosynthesis; Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2020.151361

Qiu, X., Chen, C., Shimasaki, Y., Mukai, K., Teramoto, A., Wu, M., Oshima, Y. 2020 Time-series responses in photosynthetic activity, 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin gene expression, and proteomics of Chattonella marina var. antiqua under different oxidative stress. Harmful Algae, 94, 101808 (article ID).
Keywords: 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin; Chattonella marina var. antiqua; Exogenous H2O2 stress; Photosynthesis; Proteomics; Reactive oxygen species
Strain(s): 1 
PubMed: 32414504
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2020.101808

Hikihara, R., Yamasaki, Y., Shikata, T., Nakayama, N., Sakamoto, S., Kato, S., Hatate, H., Tanaka, R. 2020 Analysis of phytosterol, fatty acid, and carotenoid composition of 19 microalgae and 6 bivalve species. J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol., 29, 461-479.
Keywords: Microalgae; bivalve; phytosterol; fucosterol; fatty acid
Strain(s): 110324 
DOI: 10.1080/10498850.2020.1749744

Mukai, K., Shimasaki, Y., Qiu, X., Kato-Unoki, Y., Chen, K., Takai, Y., Khanam M. R. M., Chairil, A. E., Oshima, Y. 2020 Gene expression stability of candidate reference genes under different culture conditions for quantitative PCR in the raphidophyte Chattonella marina. Phycologia, 59, 556-565.
Keywords: Chattonella marina; Quantitative PCR; Reference gene
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1080/00318884.2020.1816041

Zha, S., Liang, Y., Oda, T., Ishibashi, F. 2020 Bioactivities of algicidal C18 hydroxy unsaturated fatty acid isolated from the red alga Tricleocarpa jejuensis and its synthesized propargylic derivative. Algal Res., 52, 102097 (article ID).
Keywords: Tricleocarpa jejuensis; C18 hydroxy unsaturated fatty acid; Red tide phytoplankton; Algicidal activity; Antibacterial activity; Cytotoxicity
Strain(s): 13621 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2020.102097

Inaba, N., Trainer, V., Nagai, S., Kojima, S., Sakami, T., Takagi, S., Imai, I. 2019 Dynamics of seagrass bed microbial communities in artificial Chattonella blooms: A laboratory microcosm study. Harmful Algae, 84, 139-150.
Keywords: Microcosm; Study; Chattonella; Harmful algal blooms (HAB); Seagrass; HAB ; prevention
Strain(s): 1 
PubMed: 31128798
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2018.12.004

Sako, Y. 2019 Ecophysiological studies of marine microorganisms by genome information. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 85, 281-290 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 1712293559603670 
DOI: 10.2331/suisan.WA2633

Umetsu, S., Kanda, M., Imai, I., Sakai, R., Fujita, M. J. 2019 Questiomycins, algicidal compounds produced by the marine bacterium Alteromonas sp. D and their production cue. Molecules, 24, 4522 (article ID).
Keywords: Alteromonas; Chattonella antiqua; algicidal bacteria; harmful algal bloom; phenoxazinone antibiotics; questiomycins; red tide
Strain(s): 1 
PubMed: 31835604
DOI: 10.3390/molecules24244522

Mukai, K., Teramoto, A., Qiu, X., Shimasaki, Y., Kato-Unoki, Y., Lee, J. M., Mizoguchi, N., Khanam, M. R. M., Satone, H., Tatsuke, T., Kusakabe, T., Oshima, Y. 2018 Gene structure and cDNA sequence of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in the harmful algal bloom species Chattonella marina and its gene transcription under different light intensities. Eur. J. Phycol., 53, 29-38.
Keywords: Chattonella marina; 2-Cys peroxiredoxin; H2O2 scavenging activity; strong light; harmful algal bloom species; nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase; plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2017.1346206

Sakami, T., Sakamoto, S., Takagi, S., Inaba, N., Imai, I. 2017 Distribution of three algicidal Alteromonas sp. strains in seagrass beds and surrounding areas in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Fish. Sci., 83, 113-121.
Keywords: Algicidal bacteria; Real-time polymerase; chain reaction; Zostera marina; Harmful algal bloom; Most probable number
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1007/s12562-016-1048-y

Mitani, E., Nakayama, F., Matsuwaki, I., Ichi, I., Kawabata, A., Kawachi, M., Kato, M. 2017 Fatty acid composition profiles of 235 strains of three microalgal divisions within the NIES Microbial Culture Collection. Microb. Resour. Syst., 33, 19-29.
Keywords: Cryptophyta; docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; fatty acid; Haptophyta; Heterokontophyta; microalgae
Strain(s): 1891415177111522322523323426527427527627727827928028128228429332332433033334434534634734835035337237738839139540740840941341441746146246648753454855355655755855956056258758858959060360562262369569669769869970070170270370470570670770870971071171271371471571674176576676780583799710011002100310041005100610071009101110161017104410451046104713021303132413271330133913401349135313701375137613791383138413851386138713911392139313951398139914001401169917001730181318151816182618271831186218631864186518741963196419651974197519762142214321442145214721482300233123322351236323642365236923702376250625332534253525362537259026332668268926902691269326942696269727072716271727182720272227232725272627292730273127322770277127722773283928402841284228432844285928722878289028993391368936903691 

Yoshimura, T., Yanagawa, T., Fujiwara, A., Murai, K., Nogata, Y., Furuta, T., Kobayashi, T. 2016 Marine diatom Coscinodiscus wailesiii inhibits DPD measurement of residual chlorine in seawater samples. Sessile Organisms, 33, 38-43 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Residual chlorine; DPD; Seawater; Coscinodiscus wailesii
Strain(s): 15237323 
DOI: 10.4282/sosj.33.38

Inaba, N., Watanabe, T., Sakami, T., Nishi, H., Tahara, Y., Imai, I. 2014 Temporal and spatial distribution of algicidal and growth-inhibiting bacteria in the coastal sea of southwest Japan. J. Plankton Res., 36, 388-397.
Keywords: algicidal bacteria; growth-inhibiting bacteria; particle-associated bacteria; free-living bacteria; harmful algal blooms
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbt119

Naito, K., Sakai, S., Fujinaga, S., Yoshinaga, I., Tanaka, M. 2014 Evolution of water quality at a tidal flat in the Ariake Sea by Algal Growth Potential test. J. life. Environ. Sci., 6, 17-28 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Ariake Sea; AGP test; Nutrient; Iron; Microalgae
Strain(s): 1324 

Demura, M., Nakayama, T., Kasai, F., Kawachi, M. 2014 Genetic structure of Japanese Chattonella marina (Raphidophyceae) populations revealed using microsatellite markers. Phycol. Res., 62, 102-108.
Keywords: Chattonella marina var. antiqua; Chattonella marina var. marina; genetic structure; isolation by distance; microsatellite marker; population genetics
Strain(s): 1231483848586113114115116118121161557197419751976197719781980198119821983198423832384238523862387238823892390239123922393239423952396239723982399240024012402240324042405240624072509251025112512251325142515251625172518 
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12047

Onishi, Y., Mohri, Y., Tuji, A., Ohgi, K., Yamaguchi, A., Imai, I. 2014 The seagrass Zostera marina harbors growth-inhibiting bacteria against the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Fish. Sci., 80, 353-362.
Keywords: Toxic blooms; Alexandrium tamarense; Algicidal bacteria; Seagrass; Zostera marina; Mitigation; Prevention
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1007/s12562-013-0688-4

Qiu, X., Shimasaki, Y., Yoshida, Y., Matsubara, T., Yamasaki, Y., Kawaguchi, M., Honda, M., Mouri, K., Nakajima, Y., Tasmin, R., Kuno, K., Kawamura, Y., Honjo, T., Oshima, Y. 2014 Allelopathic effects of Skeletonema spp. may influence interspecific competition and bloom formation of co–occurring harmful flagellates. J. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ., 59, 373-382.
Strain(s): 110324 

Qiu, XC., Shimasaki, Y., Tsuyama, M., Tamada, T., Kuwahara, R., Kawaguchi, M., Honda, M., Gunjikake, H., Tasmin, R., Shimizu, M., Sato, Y., Kato-Unoki, Y., Nakashima, T., Matsubara, T., Yamasaki, Y., Ichinose, H., Wariishi, H., Honjo, T., Oshima, Y. 2013 Growth-phase dependent variation in photosynthetic activity and cellular protein expression profile in the harmful Raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 77, 46-52.
Keywords: Chattonella antiqua; growth potential; maximum quantum yield of photosystem II; physiological status; proteomic analysis
Strain(s): 1 
PubMed: 23291769
DOI: 10.1271/bbb.120543

Imai, I., Nishigaki, T., Okamoto, S., Yamamoto, K., Takeuchi, T., Yoshinaga, I., Hirata, H. 2013 Distributions of the algicidal microorganisms against the harmful phytoflagellates in Tanabe Bay (Wakayama Prefecture) and Osaka Bay, Japan. Bull. Fish. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 63, 23-31 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Red tide; Prevention; Killer microorganisms; Algicidal bacteria; Ulva pertusa; Seaweed beds; Karenia mikimotoi; Chattonella; Heterosigma
Strain(s): 1 

Qiu, XC., Yamasaki, Y., Shimasaki, Y., Gunjikake, H., Matsubara, T., Nagasoe, S., Etoh, T., Matsui, S., Honjo, T., Oshima, Y. 2011 Growth interactions between the raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua and the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. Harmful Algae, 11, 81-87.
Keywords: Akashiwo sanguinea; Allelopathy; Cell contact; Chattonella antiqua; Growth interaction; Growth simulation
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2011.08.001

Keawtawee, T., Fukami, K., Songsangjinda, P., Muangyao, P. 2011 Isolation and characterization of Noctiluca-killing bacteria from a shrimp aquaculture pond in Thailand. Fish. Sci., 77, 657-664.
Keywords: Algicidal bacteria; Noctiluca scintillans; HABs; Shrimp aquacluture
Strain(s): 16 
DOI: 10.1007/s12562-011-0373-4

MacKenzie, L. A., Smith, K. F., Rhodes, L. L., Brown, A., Langi, V., Edgar, M., Lovell, G., Preece, M. 2011 Mortalities of sea-cage salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) due to a bloom of Pseudochattonella verruculosa (Dictyochophyceae) in Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. Harmful Algae, 11, 45-53.
Keywords: Pseudochattonella verruculosa; Dictyochophyceae; salmon kill; Queen Charlotte Sound; New Zealand
Strain(s): 1603 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2011.07.003

Shikata, T., Sakurada, K., Jomoto, Y., Oyama, N., Onji, M., Yoshida, M., Ohwada, K. 2011 Growth dynamics of Chattonella antiqua in relation to nutrients in the Yatsushiro Sea. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 77, 40-52 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Chattonella; red tide; nutrient; nitrogen; iron; bioassay; Yatsushiro Sea; phosphate
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.2331/suisan.77.40

Fukuzaki, K., Naito, K., Yoshioka, T., Sawayama, S., Imai, I. 2011 Effects of humic substances on the growth of the harmful Raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua. Bull. Fish. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 61, 23-28 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Chattonella antiqua; Humic substance; Iron; Artificial medium; Culture experiment
Strain(s): 1 

Yamasaki, Y., Nagasoe, S., Tameishi, M., Shikata, T., Zou, Y., Jiang, Z., Matsubara, T., Shimasaki, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Oshima, Y., Honjo, T. 2010 The role of interactions between Prorocentrum minimum and Heterosigma akashiwo in bloom formation. Hydrobiologia, 641, 33-44.
Keywords: Allelopathy; growth and interaction; Heterosigma akashiwo; Prorocentrum minimum; Reactive oxygen species; Skeletonema costatum
Strain(s): 110324 
DOI: 10.1007/s10750-009-0052-y

Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, F., Nozaki, H., Nagasato, C., Motomura, T., Kataoka, H. 2009 Distribution and phylogeny of the blue light receptors aureochromes in eukaryotes. Planta, 230, 543-552.
Keywords: aureochrome (AUREO); BL receptor; bZIP; LOV; stramenopiles
Strain(s): 12801017 
PubMed: 19544070
DOI: 10.1007/s00425-009-0967-6

Kamikawa, R., Masuda, I., Demura, M., Oyama, K., Yoshimatsu, S., Kawachi, M., Sako, Y. 2009 Mitochondrial group II introns in the Raphidophycean flagellate Chattonella spp. suggest a diatom-to-Chattonella lateral group II intron transfer. Protist, 160, 364-375.
Keywords: Chattonella; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1); diatoms; group II intron; lateral transfer; Raphidophyceae
Strain(s): 1231485861151181211614625575586036717168491303197519762391240124022403240434223429 
PubMed: 19346162
DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2009.02.003

Nishibori, N., Niitsu, M., Fujihara, S., Sagara, T., Nishio, S., Imai, I. 2009 Occurrence of the polyamines caldopentamine and homocaldopentamine in axenic cultures of the red tide flagellates Chattonella antiqua and Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae). FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 298, 74-78.
Keywords: caldopentamine; homocaldopentamine; Chattonella antiqua; Heterosigma akashiwo
Strain(s): 16 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01701.x

Demura, M., Noël, M.-H., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M., Kawachi, M. 2009 Taxonomic revision of Chattonella antiqua, C. marina and C. ovata (Raphidophyceae) based on their morphological characteristics and genetic diversity. Phycologia, 48, 518-535.
Keywords: Chattonella antiqua; Chattonella marina; Chattonella ovata; COI; COX1; Genetic diversity; ITS; Microsatellite; Morphology; Phylogeny; Population; Raphidophyceae; rbcL; Speciation; Taxonomy
Strain(s): 123569101483848511311411611814616129355756160367171684919741975197619771978198019811982198319841986238323842385238623872388238923912392239323942395239623972398239924002401240224032404240524062407 
DOI: 10.2216/08-98.1

Naito, K., Imai, I., Nakahara, H. 2008 Complexation of iron by microbial siderophores and effects of iron chelates on the growth of marine microalgae causing red tides. Phycol. Res., 56, 58-67.
Keywords: chelate; growth; iron; microalgae; red tide; siderophore
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2008.00485.x

Alamsjah, M. A., Hirao, S., Ishibashi, F., Oda, T., Fujita, Y. 2008 Algicidal activity of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from Ulva fasciata and U. pertusa (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) on phytoplankton. J. Appl. Phycol., 20, 713-720.
Keywords: Algicidal compound; Red tide phytoplankton; Ulva fasciata; Ulva pertusa
Strain(s): 137221251252254359381462486 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-007-9257-5

Fukao, T., Nishijima, T., Yamaguchi, H., Adachi, M. 2007 Utilization of urea by the 6 species of red tide phytoplankton. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 54, 1-8 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: growth; red tide; phytoplankton; urea; uptake kinetics
Strain(s): 16237323324605 

Iida, K., Takishita, K., Ohshima, K., Inagaki, Y. 2007 Assessing the monophyly of chlorophyll-c containing plastids by multi-gene phylogenies under the unlinked model conditions. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 45(1), 227-238.
Keywords: chromist; chromalveolate; secondary endosymbiosis; model misspecification; separate model; concatenate model
Strain(s): 115548670716 
PubMed: 17591448
DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.05.003

Kamikawa, R., Masuda, I., Oyama, K., Yoshimatsu, S., Sako, Y. 2007 Genetic variation in mitochondrial genes and intergenic spacer region in harmful algae Chattonella species. Fish. Sci., 73, 871-880.
Keywords: Chattonella sp.; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1); cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (cox2); genetic diversity; harmful algae; mitochondria
Strain(s): 123148586115118121161557558603671849342234283429 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1444-2906.2007.01408.x

Hosoi-Tanabe, S., Otake, I., Sako, Y. 2006 Phylogenetic analysis of noxious red tide flagellates Chattonella antiqua, C. marina, C. ovata, and C. verruculosa (Raphidophyceae) based on the rRNA gene family. Fish. Sci., 72, 1200-1208.
Keywords: Chattonella; genetic homogeneity; phylogenetic analysis; Raphidophyceae; rRNA gene family
Strain(s): 1586121558559603670 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01277.x

Hosoi-Tanabe, S. & Sako, Y. 2005 Species-specific detection and quantification of toxic marine Dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense and A. catenella by reai-time PCR assay. Mar. Biotechnol., 7, 506-514.
Keywords: toxic dinoflagellate; — Alexandrium; paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP); real-time PCR; species-specific identification; quantification
Strain(s): 1712293331559603670 
PubMed: 16007374
DOI: 10.1007/s10126-004-4128-4

Kim, D., Waranabe, M., Nakayasu, Y., Kohata, K. 2005 Changes in O2- and H2O2 production by Chattonella antiqua during diel vertical migration under nutrient stratification. Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 39, 183-191.
Keywords: Chattonella antiqua; Diel vertical migration; Hydrogen peroxide; Nutrient stratification; Reactive oxygen species; Superoxide anion
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.3354/ame039183

Sako, Y., Hosoi-Tanabe, S., Uchida, A. 2004 Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rRNA-targeted probes for simple and rapid identification of the toxic dinoflagelates Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium catenella. J. Phycol., 40, 598-605.
Keywords: Alexandrium; FISH method; LSU rRNA; molecular identification; paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP); probe; toxic dinoflagellate
Strain(s): 1712331 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03035.x

Imai, I., Hatano, M., Naito, K. 2004 Development of a chemically defined artificial medium for marine red tide-causing raphidophycean flagellates. Plankton Biol. Ecol., 95, 95-102.
Keywords: Chattonella; Fibrocapsa; artificial media; molybdenum; iodine
Strain(s): 1 

Iwata, Y., Sugahara, I., Kimura, T., Kowa, H., Matsumoto, A., Noritake, K. 2004 Properties of an algicidal bacterium (Flavobacterium sp.) against Karenia mikimotoi isolated from Ise Bay, Japan. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 70, 537-541 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: algicidal bacteria; red tide; Karenia mikimotoi; Flavobacterium
Strain(s): 13532 
DOI: 10.2331/suisan.70.537

Kim, D., Waranabe, M., Nakayasu, Y., Kohata, K. 2004 Production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide associated with cell growth of Chattonella antiqua. Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 35, 57-64.
Keywords: Cell cycles; Chattonella antiqua; Hydrogen peroxide; NIES culture tank; Reactive oxygen species; Red tide; Superoxide anion
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.3354/ame035057

Hasegawa, H., Maki, T., Asano, K., Ueda, K., Ueda, K. 2004 Detection of iron(III)-binding ligands originating from marine phytoplankton using cathodic stripping voltammetry. Anal. Sci., 20, 89-93.
Strain(s): 116 
PubMed: 14753263
DOI: 10.2116/analsci.20.89

Takeda, F., Sakamaki, T., Xu, K., Chiba, N., Nishimura, O., Sudo, R. 2003 Effect of potential allelochemicals extracted from Sargassum horneri on the growth of red tide microalgae. J. Environ. Syst. and Eng., JSCE, VII-29, 25-32.
Keywords: Sargassum horneri; red tide microalgae; growth inhibition; allelochemicals
Strain(s): 116293 
DOI: 10.2208/jscej.2003.748_25

Asai, R., Ootani, K., Nomura, Y., Nakamura, C., Ikebukuro, K., Arikawa, Y., Miyake, J., Karube, I. 2003 PCR-based ribosomal DNA detection technique for microalga (Heterosigma carterae) causing red tide and its application to a biosensor using labeled probe. Mar. Biotechnol., 5, 417-423.
Keywords: small subunit rDNA; Heterosigma carterae; fluorescence polarization; asymmetric polymerase chain reaction; surface plasmon resonance
Strain(s): 144 
PubMed: 14730424
DOI: 10.1007/s10126-002-0081-2

Terasaki, M., Itabashi, Y., Suzuki, T., Nishimura, K. 2002 An improved method for determining the composition of FFA in red tide flagellates by RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 79, 1181-1186.
Keywords: 9-anthryldiazomethane; Chattonella antiqua; Chattonella marina; fluorescence detection; free fatty acid; Heterosigma akashiwo; reversed-phase HPLC
Strain(s): 13 
DOI: 10.1007/s11746-002-0624-1

Marshall, J. A. & Newman, S. 2002 Differences in photoprotective pigment production between Japanese and Australian strains of Chattonella marina (Raphidophyceae). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 272, 13-27.
Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; microalgae; raphidophytes; Chattonella; mycosporine amino acids; pigments; xanthophyll cycle; stratospheric ozone depletion
Strain(s): 1118 
DOI: 10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00034-5

Connell, L. 2002 Rapid identification of marine algae (Raphidophyceae) using three-primer peR amplification of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions from fresh and archived material. Phycologia, 41, 15-21.
Strain(s): 115 
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-41-1-15.1

Imai, I., Fujimaru, D., Nishigaki, T. 2002 Co-culture of fish with macroalgae and associated bacteria: A possible mitigation strategy for noxious red tides in enclosed coastal sea. Fish. Sci., 68, 493-496.
Keywords: red tide; mitigation; algicidal bacteria; macroalgae; co-culture of fish and macroalgae
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.2331/fishsci.68.sup1_493

Maki, T. & Imai, I. 2001 Effects of harmful dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama cells on the growth of intracellular bacteria. Microbes Environ., 16, 234-239.
Keywords: dinoflagellate; red tide; Heterocapsa circularisquama; intracellular bacteria; growth
Strain(s): 1 

Ehara, M., Watanabe, K. I., Kawai, H., Inagaki, Y., Hayashi-Ishimaru, Y., Ohama, T. 1998 Distribution of the mitochondrial deviant genetic code AUA for methionine in heterokont algae. J. Phycol., 34, 1005-1008.
Keywords: cytochrome oxydase subunit I; deviant genetic code; heterokont algae; Phaeophyceae; Xanthophyceae
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1046/j.1529-8817.1998.341005.x

Imai, I., Kim, M. C., Nagasaki, K., Itakura, S., Ishida, Y. 1998 Detection and enumeration of microorganisms that are lethal to harmful phytoplankton in coastal waters. Plankton Biol. Ecol., 45, 19-29.
Keywords: red tide; Chattonella; Heterosigma; killer bacteria; viruses
Strain(s): 1 

Imai, I., Kim, M. C., Nagasaki, K., Itakura, S., Ishida, Y. 1998 Relationships between dynamics of red tide-causing raphidophycean flagellates and algicidal micro-organisms in the coastal sea of Japan. Phycol. Res., 46, 139-146.
Keywords: algicidal bacteria; Chattonella; Heterosigma; Raphidophyceae; red tide; virus
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.1998.tb00106.x

Imai, I., Nakagiri, S., Nagai, K., Nagasaki, K., Itakura, S., Yamaguchi, M. 1998 Fluctuations of algicidal microorganisms against the harmful dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama in Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Bull. Nansei Natl. Fish. Res. Inst., 31, 53-61 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: red tide; Heterocapsa circularisquama; algicidal bacteria; viruses; Ago Bay
Strain(s): 1 

Kim, M.-C., Yoshinaga, I., Imai, I., Nagasaki, K., Itakura, S., Ishida, Y. 1998 A close relationship between algicidal bacteria and termination of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) blooms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 170, 25-32.
Keywords: algicidal bacteria; marine bacteria; marine phytoplankton; red tide; bloom; Raphidophyceae; Heterosigma akashiwo
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.3354/meps170025

Yamatogi, T., Miyahara, J., Tanaka, J. 1996 Preculture of noxious red tide flagellate Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae) for AGP assay. Bull. Nagasaki Pref. Inst. Fish., 22, 7-13 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Ikegami, S., Imai, I., Kato, J., Ohtake, H. 1995 Chemotaxis toward inorganic phosphate in the red tide alga Chattonella antiqua. J. Plankton Res., 17, 1587-1591.
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1093/plankt/17.7.1587

Imai, I., Ishida, Y., Sakaguchi, K., Hata, Y. 1995 Algicidal marine bacteria isolated from northern Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Fish. Sci., 61, 628-636.
Keywords: algicidal bacteria; red tide; Chattonella; Alteromonas
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.2331/fishsci.61.628

Imai, I., Ishida, Y., Hata, Y. 1993 Killing of marine phytoplankton by a gliding bacterium Cytophaga sp., isolated from the coastal sea of Japan. Mar. Biol., 116, 527-532.
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1007/BF00355470

Yasumoto, T. 1992 Toxin of the marine micro-algae [Kaiyô bisaisôrui no Tokishin]. BIO Medica, 7, 57-62 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 161215 

Imai, I., Ishida, Y., Sawayama, S., Hata, Y. 1991 Isolation of a marine gliding bacterium that kills Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 57, 1409.
Strain(s): 1 

Nagai, H., Satake, M., Murata, M., Yasumoto, T. 1990 Screening of marine phytoplankton for antifungal substances. In Toxic Marine Phyto-plankton, Eds. by Graneli, E., Sundstrom, B., Edler, L. & Anderson, D. M., Elsevier Science Pub., New York, pp. 385-390.
Strain(s): 161215 

Hiroishi, S., Uchida, A., Nagasaki, K., Ishida, Y. 1988 A new method for identification of inter- and intra-species of the red tide algae Chattonella antiqua and Chattonella marina (Raphidophyceae) by means of monoclonal antibodies. J. Phycol., 24, 442-444.
Keywords: Chattonella; identification; immunofluorescence; inter-species; intra-species; method; monoclonal antibody; red tide
Strain(s): 121483848586113114115116118121 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1988.tb04488.x

Kohata, K. & Watanabe, M. 1988 Diel changes in the composition of photosynthetic pigments and cellular carbon and nitrogen in Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae). J. Phycol., 24, 58-66.
Keywords: carotenoids; cellular carbon; Chattonella antiqua; chlorophyll; diel change; laboratory culture tank; light-dark cycles
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1988.tb04456.x

Kohata, K. & Watanabe, M. 1987 The use of a controlled experimental ecosystem (Microcosm) in studies of mechanism of red tide outbreaks (VI) - Diurnal changes of C/N ratio and distribution of chloroplast pigments in the culture of Chattonella antiqua, a red tide flagellate. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 110, 67-77 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y. 1987 Effects of growth conditions on nitrate, ammonium and phosphate uptake by Chattonella antiqua. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 110, 115-126 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y., Sawai, K., Mochida, M., Watanabe, M. 1987 An approach to estimate the limiting nutrient of Chattonella antiqua in the Seto Inland Sea - Semicontinuous culture using natural seawater. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 110, 197-212 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y., Sawai, K., Watanabe, M. 1987 Growth inhibition of a red tide flagellate, Chattonella antiqua by cupric ion. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 110, 127-138 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nichols, P. D., Volkman, J. K., Hallegraeff, G. M., Blackburn, S. I. 1987 Sterols and fatty acids of the red tide flagellates Heterosigma akashiwo and Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae). Phytochemistry, 26, 2537-2541.
Keywords: Heterosigma akashiwo; Chattonella antiqua; algae; Raphidophyceae; lipids; fatty acids; sterols; chemotaxonomy; red tides
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83871-6

Nakamura, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 1984 Effects of temperature, salinity, light intensity and pH on the growth of Chattonella antiqua. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 63, 79-85 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 1984 Effects of nutrients on the growth of Chattonella antiqua. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 63, 87-95 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 1984 Diurnal vertical migration of a red tide flagellate, Chattonella antiqua with special reference to the ecological role. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 63, 97-102 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 1984 Nitrate and phosphate uptake kinetics of Chattonella antiqua grown in light/dark cycles. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 63, 103-109 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 1983 Growth characteristics of Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae). Part 1. Effects of temperature, salinity, light intensity and pH on growth. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 39, 110-114.
Strain(s): 1 

Nakamura, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 1983 Growth characteristics of Chattonella antiqua Part 2. Effects of nutrients on growth. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 39, 151-155.
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1007/BF02070258

Nakamura, Y. & Watanabe, M. M. 1983 Nitrate and phosphate uptake kinetics of Chattonella antiqua grown in light/dark cycles. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 39, 167-170.
Strain(s): 1 
DOI: 10.1007/BF02070260

Watanabe, M. M., Nakamura, Y., Kohata, K. 1983 Diurnal vertical migration and dark uptake of nitrate and phosphate of the red tide flagellates, Heterosigma akashiwo Hada and Chattonella antiqua (Hada) Ono (Raphidophyceae). Jpn. J. Phycol. (Sôrui), 31, 161-166.
Keywords: Chattonella antiqua; diurnal vertical migration; Heterosigma akashiwo; nitrate and phosphate uptakes; red tide
Strain(s): 16 

Nakamura, Y., Watanabe, M. M., Watanabe, M. 1982 The effect of various environmental factors on the growth yield of red tide algae. I. Chattonella antiqua. Res. Rep. Natl. Inst. Environ. Stud., No. 30, 53-70 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 1 

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