A big image opens when the thumbnail is clicked.(nies-0039.jpg)
Strain number NIES-39  
Phylum Cyanophyta  
Class Cyanophyceae  
Scientific name Arthrospira platensis Gomont  
Synonym Oscillatoria platensis (Gomont) Bourrelly 1970  
Former name Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler  
Common name Blue-green alga ; Cyanobacteria  
Locality (Date of collection) Lake Chad,  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Salt water  
History < IAM (1983);  
Isolator (Date of isolation)  
Identified by  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2018 Feb]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  SOT  
Temperature:  20 (25) C
Light intensity:  6-8 (12) µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  4 M (14 D)  
Gene information Whole-genome ( AP026945 AP011615 ) , 16S rRNA ( AB074508 DQ393279 ) , cpcB, cpcA ( DQ393287 ) , crtB ( AB001284 ) , cyaA ( D49530 ) , cyaG ( D49531 ) , cyaC ( D49692 ) , groEL ( AB039632 ) , gyrB ( AB074765 ) , petH ( AB113346 ) , MS ( AB548759 ) , mth ( AB282753 ) , recA ( U33924 ) , rpoC1 ( AB074788 ) , rpoD1 ( AB074815 )  
Cell size (min - max) 6 - 7 μm  
Organization Filamentous 
Characteristics Autotrophic ; Genome decoded strain (Fujisawa et al. 2010) ; Hydrogen evolution ; Contains good quality of proteins  
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM M-135 (=M-222); UTEX 3086
Remarks Axenic 
Movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZdR3mW12eeM&index=15&list=PLFTJlLsZcVbiJY3ygYAPKeVOfDdOh9UEW&t=0s  
Aoki, J., Ozaki, T., Koshikawa, R., Sasaki, D., Kitajima, K., Yoshida, Y., Nakajima, H., Asayama, M. 2024 Effective cultivation conditions and safety evaluation of filamentous cyanobacteria producing phycocyanins with antiglycation activities. J. Biotechnol., 391, 64-71.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Antiglycation; Limnothrix; Phycocyanin; Pseudanabaena; Spirulina
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2024.06.003

Badr, K., He, Q. P., Wang, J. 2024 Probing interspecies metabolic interactions within a synthetic binary microbiome using genome-scale modeling. Microbiome Res. Rep., 3, 31 (article ID).
Keywords: Synthetic microbiome; methanotroph-photoautotroph coculture; interspecies metabolic interactions; genome-scale metabolic modeling; steady state modeling; dynamic modeling
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.20517/mrr.2023.70

Lee, C., Han, S.-I., Na, H., Kim, Z., Ahn, J. W., Oh, B., Kim, H. S. 2024 Comprehensive understanding of the mutant 'giant' Arthrospira platensis developed via ultraviolet mutagenesis. Front. Plant Sci., 15, 1369976 (article ID).
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; whole genome sequencing; cell size; harvest; microfluidic
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 38567133
DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2024.1369976

Shiraishi, H., Sasase, M., Nakashima, A. S. 2024 Helicoid morphology of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 confers temperature compensation in the longitudinal movement velocity of its trichomes. Phycology, 4, 104-116.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; cell movement; cyanobacteria; gliding motility; helix; multicellularity; spirulina; temperature compensation
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.3390/phycology4010006

Kishi, M., Tanaka, K.,Tagawa, M., Akizuki, S., Toda, T. 2023 Energy-efficient algal culture through aeration-less oxygen removal in a gas-permeable bag photobioreactor. Algal Res., 69, 102959 (article ID).
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Bicarbonate; Dissolved oxygen; Energy-efficient; Membrane; Pervaporation
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2022.102959

Mezgebu, A., Liu, X., Mingist, M., Ban, S. 2023 Evaluating food quality of Arthrospira platensis for culturing Daphnia magna. Aquac. Int., 32, 3533-3544.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Daphnia magna; Essential biochemicals; Food quality
Strain(s): 392235 
DOI: 10.1007/s10499-023-01336-9

Wang, K., Li, w., Cui, H., Qin, S. 2023 Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase in planktonic filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp.. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 24, 15210 (article ID).
Keywords: c-di-GMP; Arthrospira; diguanylate cyclase; phosphodiesterase; riboswitch
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 37894891
DOI: 10.3390/ijms242015210

Shiraishi, H. & Nishida, H. 2023 Complete genome sequence of the edible filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis NIES-39, based on long-read sequencing. Microbiol. Resour. Ann., 12, e0113922 (article ID).
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 36537808
DOI: 10.1128/mra.01139-22

Fekrat, F., Nami, B., Hejazi, M. A., Ghafari, M. R., Shahbazi, M. 2022 Correlation network analysis of metabolites reveals the role of nitrogen‑containing metabolic stressors in stimulating high‑value compounds biosynthesis in Arthrospira platensis. J. Appl. Phycol., 34, 1967–1982.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Aspartic acid; Monosodium glutamate; Metabolic stress
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-022-02753-8

Jester, B. W. et al. 2022 Development of spirulina for the manufacture and oral delivery of protein therapeutics. Nat. Biotechnol., 40, 956–964.
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 35314813
DOI: 10.1038/s41587-022-01249-7

Katayama, N. & MOsanai, T. 2022 Arginine inhibition of the argininosuccinate lyases is conserved among three orders in cyanobacteria. Plant Mol.Biol., 110, 13–22.
Keywords: Arginine biosynthesis; Argininosuccinate lyase; Cyanobacteria; Synechocystis
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 35583703
DOI: 10.1007/s11103-022-01280-x

Aoi, J., Sasaki, D., Asayama, M. 2021 Development of a method for phycocyanin recovery from filamentous cyanobacteria and evaluation of its stability and antioxidant capacity. BMC Biotechnol., 21, 40 (article ID).
Keywords: Antioxidant; Arthrospira platensis; Cell lysis; Limnothrix sp., Phycocyanin; Pseudanabaena sp.
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 34134665
DOI: 10.1186/s12896-021-00692-9

Jung, S.-H., McHardy, C., Rauh, C., Jahn, A., Luzi, G., Delgado, A., Buchholz, R., Lindenberger, C. 2021 A new approach for calculating microalgae culture growth based on an inhibitory efect of the surrounding biomass. Bioprocess. Biosyst. Eng., 44, 1671-1684.
Keywords: Algae cultivation; Numerical methods; Growth kinetics; Inhibitory efects
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 33860849
DOI: 10.1007/s00449-021-02550-6

Jangir, M. M., Chowdhury, S., Bhagavatula, V. 2021 Differential response of photosynthetic apparatus towards alkaline pH treatment in NIES-39 and PCC 7345 strains of Arthrospira platensis. Int. Microbiol., 24, 219-231.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Thylakoid; PBsomes; Alkalinity; PSII; PSI; TEM
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 33438119
DOI: 10.1007/s10123-021-00160-6

Shiraishi, H. & Toyoda, A. 2021 The use of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide–based colorimetric assay in the viability analysis of the filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 85, 739-742.
Keywords: colorimetric viability assay; cyanobacteria; heat sensitivity; spirulina
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 33624771
DOI: 10.1093/bbb/zbaa050

Kishi, M., Yamada, Y., Katayama, T., Matsuyama, T., Toda, T. 2020 Carbon mass balance in Arthrospira platensis culture with medium recycle and high CO2 supply. Appl. Sci., 10, 228 (article ID).
Keywords: Arthrospira; carbon dioxide; CO2 capture and utilization; mass balance; medium recycle; pH
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.3390/app10010228

Okamoto, Y., Haraguchi, Y., Sawamura, N., Asahi, T., Shimizu, T. 2020 Mammalian cell cultivation using nutrients extracted from microalgae. Biotechnol. Prog., 36, e2941 (article ID).
Keywords: acidic hydrolysis; amino acids; glucose; mammalian cell culture; microalgae; nutrients
Strain(s): 2739492170 
PubMed: 31756286
DOI: 10.1002/btpr.2941

MacCready, J. S., Basalla, J. L., Vecchiarelli, A. G. 2020 Origin and evolution of carboxysome positioning systems in cyanobacteria. Mol. Biol. Evol., 37, 1434–1451.
Strain(s): 212225263039447387882675928068439329702098210021072108211125493275375437563974407340744075410141034106 
PubMed: 31899489
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msz308

Sugiyama, K., Takahashi, K., Nakazawa, K., Yamada, M., Kato, S., Shinomura, T., Nagashima, Y., Suzuki, H., Ara, T., Harada, J., Takaichi, S. 2020 Oxygenic phototrophs need ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO) for carotene synthesis: Functional analysis in Arthrospira and Euglena. Plant Cell Physiol., 61, 276–282.
Keywords: Arthrospira; CarotenoidEuglena; Oxygenic phototrophs; Z-ISO; ζ-carotene isomerase
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 31593237
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcz192

Tanaka, K., Kishi, M., Assaye, H., Toda, T. 2020 Low temperatures in dark period affect biomass productivity of a cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. Algal Res., 52, 102132 (article ID).
Keywords: Microalgae; Respiration; Temperature; Arthrospira platensis; Biomass productivity; Night biomass loss
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2020.102132

Asukabe, H., Akahori, S., Ueno, E., Nakayama, T., Yamashita, R., Arii, S., Harada, K., Imanishi, S. Y. 2020 Cyanobacterial classification with the toxicity using MALDI Biotyper. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 31, 1572-1578.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; MALDI Biotyper; microcystins; profiling
Strain(s): 27394273818789100101102103104105107111112207208230266298416433478510512515592593604611808809835843846847905928931932945981989102510431058106110641068106910711076108510991101110511131115112611331134113511441157121516421643165216681672167316771678169820872131241226653708373337343736375537563757 
PubMed: 32501712
DOI: 10.1021/jasms.0c00148

Tanioka, Y. 2019 Food chemistry and physiological function of pseudovitamin B12. Vitamins (Japan), 93, 47-51 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: pseudovitamin B12; corrinoid compounds; cyanobacteria; meheionine synthase; shellfish
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.20632/vso.93.2_47

Komatsu, K., Onouchi, H., Imai, A., Kawasaki, N., Hashim, E. F., Mohd Rajuddin, M. K. 2019 Effects of dissolved organic matter in soil extracts on the growth of microalgae. J. Jpn. Soc. Wat. Environ., 42, 239-246 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Soil extracts; Microalgae; Microplate technique; Excitation emission matrix; Molecular size distribution
Strain(s): 39214521682170225622572258 
DOI: 10.2965/jswe.42.239

Lebre P. H. & Cowan D. A 2019 Genomics of alkaliphiles. In Alkaliphiles in Biotechnology, Eds. by Mamo G., Mattiasson B., Springer, Cham, pp. 135-155.
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1007/10_2018_83

Jangir, M. M., Vani, B., Chowdhury, S. 2019 Analysis of seven putative Na+/H+ antiporters of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 using transcription profiling and In-silico studies: an indication towards alkaline pH acclimation. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants 25, 1175–1183.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis NIES-39; Na+/H+ antiporters; pH; Real-time PCR; CPA family
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 31564780
DOI: 10.1007/s12298-019-00687-z

Lin, W., Zhao, D., Luo, J. 2018 Distribution of alkaline phosphatase genes in cyanobacteria and the role of alkaline phosphatase on the acquisition of phosphorus from dissolved organic phosphorus for cyanobacterial growth. J. Appl. Phycol., 30, 839-850.
Keywords: Alkaline; phosphatase; Cyanobacteria; Dissolved organic phosphorus; Distribution
Strain(s): 303981213025493756 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-017-1267-3

Kishi, M. & Toda, T. 2018 Carbon fixation properties of three alkalihalophilic microalgal strains under high alkalinity. J. Appl. Phycol., 30, 401–410.
Keywords: Algae; Cyanobacteria; Carbon dioxide; Alkalinity; Growth optimization
Strain(s): 392257 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-017-1226-z

Aikawa, S., Inokuma, K., Wakai, S., Sasaki, K., Ogino, C., Chang, J-S., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. 2018 Direct and highly productive conversion of cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis to ethanol with CaCl2 addition. Biotechnol. Biofuels, 11, 50 (article ID).
Keywords: Ethanol conversion; Glycogen extraction; Cyanobacteria; Amylase-displaying yeast; Polysaccharide layer; Organic nutrient
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 29492105
DOI: 10.1186/s13068-018-1050-y

Moten, D., Batsalova, T., Basheva, D., Mladenov, R., Dzhambazov, B., Teneva, I. 2018 Outer membrane efflux protein (OMEP) is a suitable molecular marker for resolving the phylogeny and taxonomic status of closely related cyanobacteria. Phycol. Res., 66, 31-36.
Keywords: cyanobacterial taxonomy; phylogenetic analysis; transmembrane transporter sequences
Strain(s): 3984321043754375537563757 
DOI: 10.1111/pre.12203

Sugiyama, K., Ebisawa, M., Yamada, M., Nagashima, Y., Suzuki, H., Maoka, T., Takaichi, S. 2017 Functional lycopene cyclase (CruA) in cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis NIES-39, and its role in carotenoid synthesis. Plant Cell Physiol., 58, 831-838.
Keywords: Arthrospira; Carotenoid; Lycopene cyclase; crtR; cruA; β-Carotene hydroxylase
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 28371918
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcx015

Garcia, H. F. L. 2017 Mathematical modelling as a research tool in the cyanobacteria cultivation. PhD thesis, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, 101 pp.
Strain(s): 39 

Nogami, R., Nishida, H., Hong, D. D., Wakisaka, M. 2017 Growth promotion effect of alginate oligosaccharides on Spirulina analyzed by repeated batch culture. J. Jpn. Inst. Energy, 96, 352-356.
Keywords: Alginate oligosaccharides; Anti-oxidation; Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis; Growth promotion; Phycocyanin; Repeated batch culture
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.3775/jie.96.352

Silas, S., Makarova, KS., Shmakov, S., Páez-Espino, D., Mohr, G., Liu, Y., Davison, M., Roux, S.9, Krishnamurthy, SR., Fu, BXH., Hansen, LL., Wang, D., Sullivan, MB., Millard, A., Clokie, MR., Bhaya, D., Lambowitz, AM., Kyrpides, NC., Koonin, EV., Fire, AZ. 2017 On the origin of reverse transcriptase using CRISPR-Cas systems and their hyperdiverse, enigmatic spacer repertoires. mBio, 8, e00897-17 (article ID).
Keywords: CRISPR; RNA spacer acquisition; cyanobacteria; deep sequencing; horizontal gene transfer; host-parasite relationship; phylogeny; reverse transcriptase
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 28698278
DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00897-17

Kerfeld, CA., Melnicki, MR., Sutter M., Dominguez-Martin, MA. 2017 Structure, function and evolution of the cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein and its homologs. New Phytol., 215, 937-951.
Keywords: carotenoids; carotenoproteins; cyanobacteria; nonphotochemical quenching; photoprotection; phylogenomics; protein structure; singlet oxygen (1O2) quenching
Strain(s): 3981843 
PubMed: 28675536
DOI: 10.1111/nph.14670

Reichert,M., Bergmann,S. M., Hwang, J., Buchholz, R., Lindenberger, C. 2017 Antiviral activity of exopolysaccharides from Arthrospira platensis against koi herpesvirus. J. Fish Dis., 40, 1441–1450.
Keywords: antiviral substances; exopolysaccharides; KHVD; koi herpesvirus
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 28422294
DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12618

Tadama, S. & Shiraishi, H. 2017 Growth of the edible microalga Arthrospira platensis in relation to boron supply. International Journal of GEOMATE, 12, 90-95.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Spirulina; Arthrospira platensis; Boron, H-resorcinol
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.21660/2017.30.2580

Motwalli, O., Essack, M., Jankovic, BR., Ji, B., Liu, X., Ansari, HR., Hoehndorf, R., Gao, X., Arold, ST., Mineta, K., Archer, JA., Gojobori, T., Mijakovic, I., Bajic, VB. 2017 In silico screening for candidate chassis strains of free fatty acid-producing cyanobacteria. BMC Genomics, 18, 33 (article ID).
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Free fatty acids; Biofuel; Screening method; Cell factories; Bioinformatics; Optimization; Computer science
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 2805677
DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-3389-4

Nogami, R., Nishida, H., Hong, D. D., Wakisaka, M. 2016 Growth promotion of Spirulina by steelmaking slag: application of solubility diagram to understand its mechanism. AMB Express, 6, 96 (article ID).
Keywords: Steelmaking slag; Growth promotion; Spirulina; Solubility diagram; Oxidative stress
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 27730571
DOI: 10.1186/s13568-016-0270-4

Misumi, M., Katoh, H., Tomo, T., Sonoike, K. 2016 Relationship between photochemical quenching and non-photochemical quenching in six species of cyanobacteria reveals species difference in redox state and species commonality in energy dissipation. Plant Cell, 57, 1510-1517.
Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements; Cyanobacteria; Photochemical quenching; Respiration; State transition; Thermal dissipation
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 26712847
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcv185

Shiraishi, H. 2016 Cryopreservation of the edible alkalophilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 80, 2051-2057.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; dietary supplements; spirulina; Arthrospira platensis; cryopreservation
Strain(s): 39462308 
PubMed: 27240586
DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2016.1189320

Andemichael, H., Lee, J. W. 2016 Toxicological study of biofuel ethanol with blue green alga Spirulina platensis. Algal Res., 18, 110-115.
Keywords: Spirulina platensis; Biofuel ethanol; Cyanobacteria; Ethanol tolerance bioassay; Biofuel ethanol toxicological effect
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.05.032

Yoshikawa, K., Aikawa, S., Kojima, Y., Toya, Y., Furusawa, C., Kondo, A., Shimizu, H. 2015 Construction of a genome-scale metabolic model of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 and metabolic design for cyanobacterial bioproduction. PLoS One, 10, e0144430 (article ID).
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 26640947
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144430

Aikawa, S., Ho, S-H., Nakanishi, A., Chang, J-S., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. 2015 Improving polyglucan production in cyanobacteria and microalgae via cultivation design and metabolic engineering. Biotechnol. J., 10, 886-898.
Keywords: Bioethanol; Cyanobacteria; Metabolic engineering; Microalgae; Polyglucan
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 25867926
DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400344

Shiraishi, H. 2015 Association of heterotrophic bacteria with aggregated Arthrospira platensis exopolysaccharides: implications in the induction of axenic cultures. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 79, 331-341.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Arthrospira platensis; exopolysaccharides; axenic cultures; Alcian blue
Strain(s): 3946 
PubMed: 25333502
DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2014.972333

Toyoshima, M., Aikawa, S., Yamagishi, T., Kondo, A., Kawai, H. 2015 A pilot-scale floating closed culture system for the multicellular cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. J. Appl. Phycol., 27, 2191-2202.
Keywords: Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39; Biomass productivity; Floating closed culture system; Modified seawater medium; Outdoor sulture
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-014-0484-2

Kamata, K., Piao, Z., Suzuki, S., Fujimori, T., Tajiri, W., Nagai, K., Iyoda, T., Yamada, A., Hayakawa, T., Ishiwara, M., Horaguchi, S., Belay, A., Tanaka, T., Takano, K., Hangyo M. 2014 Spirulina-templated metal microcoils with controlled helical structures for THz electromagnetic responses. Sci Rep, 4, 4919 (article ID).
Strain(s): 3946 
PubMed: 24815190
DOI: 10.1038/srep04919

Aikawa, S., Joseph, A., Yamada, R., Izumi, Y., Yamagishi, T., Matsuda, F., Kawai, H., Chang, J.-S., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. 2013 Direct conversion of Spirulina to ethanol without pretreatment or enzymatic hydrolysis processes. Energ. Environ. Sci., 6, 1844-1849.
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1039/C3EE40305J

Shiraishi, H., Tabuse, Y. 2013 The AplI restriction-modification system in an edible cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39, recognizes the nucleotid sequence 5'-CTGCAG-3'. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 77, 782-788.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Spirulina; restriction enzyme; DNA methyltransferase; edible cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 23563565
DOI: 10.1271/bbb.120919

Hasunuma, T., Kikuyama, F., Matsuda, M., Aikawa, S., Izumi, Y., Kondo, A. 2013 Dynamic metabolic profiling of cyanobacterial glycogen biosynthesis under conditions of nitrate depletion. J. Exp. Bot., 64, 2943-2954.
Keywords: 13C; cyanobacteria; glycogen; in vivo labelling; metabolic turnover; metabolomics
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 23658429
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ert134

Izumi, Y., Aikawa, S., Matsuda, F., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. 2013 Aqueous size-exclusion chromatographic method for the quantification of cyanobacterial native glycogen. J. Chromatogr. B, 930, 90-97.
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography; Native glycogen; Qantitative analysis; Polyhydroxy methacrylate; Microalgae; Arthrospira platensis
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 23727872
DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.04.037

Miklaszewska, M., Waleron, M., Morin, N., Calusinska, M., Wilmotte, A., De Marsac, NT., Rippka, R., Waleron, K. 2012 Elucidation of the gas vesicle gene clusters in cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Oscillatoriales, Cyanophyta) and correlation with ITS phylogeny. Eur. J. Phycol., 47, 233-244.
Keywords: Arthrospira; cyanobacteria; gas vacuoles; gas vesicles; gvpA; gvpC; gvpN; internal transcribed spacer (ITS)
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2012.692817

Choi, G-G., Ahn, C-Y., Oh, H-M. 2012 Phylogenetic relationships of Arthrospira strains inferred from 16S rRNA gene and cpcBA-IGS sequences. Algae, 27, 75-82.
Keywords: Arthrospira (Spirulina); cpcBA-IGS; phylogenetic analysis; 16S rRNA gene
Strain(s): 3946 
DOI: 10.4490/algae.2012.27.2.075

Aikawa, S., Izumi, Y., Matsuda, F., Hasunuma, T., Chang, J.-S., Kondo, A. 2012 Synergistic enhancement of glycogen production in Arthrospira platensis by optimization of light intensity and nitrate supply. Bioresour. Technol., 108, 211-215.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Glycogen; Cyanobacteria; Light intensity; Nitrogen starvation
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 22277210
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.004

Yoshikawa, T., Ikeda, Y., Sakata, T., Maeda, H. 2011 Cloning and analysis of the ggpS gene from cyanobacteria Arthrospira spp. involved in the synthesis of an osmolyte glucosylglycerol. Biocontrol Science, 16, 55-61.
Keywords: Arthrospira; ggpS; Glucosylglycerol; Osmolyte; Synechococcus
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 21719990
DOI: 10.4265/bio.16.55

Kim, C.-J., Jung, Y.-H., Ahn, C.-Y., Lee, Y.-K., Oh, H.-M. 2010 Adsorption of turbid materials by the cyanobacterium Phormidium parchydematicum. J. Appl. Phycol., 22, 181-186.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; Clay; Cyanobacteria; Phormidium parchydematicum; Turbid material
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-009-9440-y

Tanioka, Y., Miyamoto, E., Yabuta, Y., Ohnishi, K., Fujita, T., Yamaji, R., Misono, H., Shigeoka, S., Nakano, Y., Inui, H., Watanabe, F. 2010 Methyladeninylcobamide functions as the cofactor of methionine synthase in a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis NIES-39. FEBS Lett., 584, 3223-3226.
Keywords: adeninylcobamide; cobalamin; cyanobacteria; methionine synthase; pseudovitamine B12; Spirulina platensis
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 20558164
DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2010.06.013

Fujisawa, T., Narikawa, R., Okamoto, S., Ehira, S., Yoshimura, H., Suzuki, I., Masuda, T., Mochimaru, M., Takaichi, S., Awai, K., Sekine, M., Horikawa, H., Yashiro, I., Omata, S., Takarada, H., Katano, Y., Kosugi, H., Tanikawa, S., Ohmori, K., Sato, N.,Ikeuchi, M., Fujita, N., Ohmori, M. 2010 Genomic structure of an economically important cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39. DNA Res., 17, 85-103.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Arthrospira; health supplement; genome; cAMP
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 20203057
DOI: 10.1093/dnares/dsq004

Lu, J., Satoh, H., Takeuchi, T. 2008 Development of models of threshold and efficient algal densities for larval and juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on raw Spirulina. Aquaculture, 285, 249-254.
Keywords: assimilation; 14C labeling; CERAS (closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system); density; ingestion; Spirulina; Oreochromis niloticus
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.08.039

Kim, C.-J., Hung, Y.-H., Oh, H.-M, 2007 Factors indicating culture status during cultivation of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. J. Microbiol., 45, 122-127.
Keywords: coil number; culture status; syanobacteria; floating activity; Spirulona platensis
Strain(s): 3946 
PubMed: 17483796

Kim, B.-H., Oh, H.-M., Lee, Y.-K., Choi, G.-G., Ahn, C.-y., Yoon, B.-D., Kim, H.-S., 2006 Simple method for RNA preparation from cyanobacteria. J. Phycol., 42, 1137-1141.
Keywords: bead–phenol–chloroform method; cyanobacteria; RNA extraction; xanthogenate–SDS–phenol method
Strain(s): 3339230 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00263.x

Lu, J., Takeuchi, T., Satoh, H. 2006 Ingestion, assimilation and utilization of raw Spirulina by larval tilapia Oreochromis niloticus during larval development. Aquaculture, 254, 686-692.
Keywords: assimilation; 14C labeling; CERAS (closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system); ingestion; Spirulina; Oreochromis niloticus
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.11.002

Yukino, T., Hayashi, M., Inoue, Y., Imamura, J., Nagano, N., Murata, H. 2005 Preparation of docosahexaenoic acid fortified Spirulina platensis and its lipid and fatty acid compositions. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 71, 74-79 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; DHA; Spirulina; foods with function claims
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.2331/suisan.71.74

Lu, J., Takeuchi, T., Satoh, H. 2004 Ingestion and assimilation of three species of freshwater algae by larval tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, 238, 437-449.
Keywords: carbon assimilation; closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system (CERAS); Chlorella; 14C labeling; Euglena; ingestion; Oreochromis niloticus; Spirulina
Strain(s): 3948641 
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.05.002

Lu, J. & Takeuchi, T. 2004 Spawning and egg quality of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed solely on raw Spirulina throughout three generations. Aquaculture, 234, 625-640.
Keywords: Closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system (CERAS); egg quality; larval quality; Oreochromis niloticus; parent; progeny; reproduction; spawn; Spirulina platensis
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2003.12.027

Seo, P-S. & Yokota, A. 2003 The phylogenetic relationships of cyanobacteria inferred from 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoC1 and rpoD1 gene sequences. J. Gen. Appl. Micobiol., 49, 191-203.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; gyrB; phylogeny; protein evolution; rpoC1; rpoD1; 16S rDNA
Strain(s): 19212225391042093209521283277 
PubMed: 12949700
DOI: 10.2323/jgam.49.191

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 192122232425262728293031323334353637383940414445465051525354555658596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310312313329334337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Watanabe, F., Miyamoto, E., Nakano, Y. 2001 Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 5685-5688.
Keywords: Vitamin B12; pseudovitamin B12; algal health food; spirulina tablet; intrinsic facto
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 11714378
DOI: 10.1021/jf010733i

Toyomizu, M., Suzuki, K., Kawata, Y., Kojima, H., Akiba, Y. 2001 Effective transformation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis using electroporation. J. Appl. Phycol., 13, 209-214.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; cyanobacterium; blue-green alga; electroporation; feed enzyme; poultry; Spirulina; transformation
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1023/A:1011182613761

Lee, K.-Y., Park, J.-H., Park, B.-S. 1996 CO2 fixation and SCP production using blue green algae. Theories and Applications of Chem. Eng. (Korea), 2, 489-492 (in Korean with English title).
Strain(s): 193946 

Sasaki, K., Marquez, F. J., Nishio, N., Nagai, S. 1995 Promotive effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on the growth and photosynthesis of Spirulina platensis. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 79, 453-457.
Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid; Spirulina platensis; phycocyanin; chlorophyll
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/0922-338X(95)91261-3

Miya, A., Adachi, T., Tazawa, R., Suzuki, S., Kanki, R., Toyobe, M., Oguchi, M. 1994 Gas revitalization by microalgae II. CO2/O2 gas exchange system. CELSS J., 7, 29-34 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: microalgae; CO2/O2 gas exchange system; regenerative life support system
Strain(s): 39 

Suzuki, S., Tazawa, R., Miya, A., Adachi, T., Kanki, R., Toyobe, M., Oguchi, M. 1994 Gas revitalization by microalgae. I. Studies on species and culture condition. CELSS J., 7, 23-28 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: microalgae; Spirulina; SOT medium; culture condition; CO2/O2 gas exchange system
Strain(s): 394546 

Ohmori, K., Hirose, M., Ohmori, M. 1993 An increase in the intracellular concentration of cAMP triggers formation of an algal mat by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Plant Cell Physiol., 34, 169-171.
Keywords: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae); cyclic AMP; motility; Spirulina platensis
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.pcp.a078394

Hirano, M., Mori, H., Miura, Y., Matsunaga, N., Nakamura, N., Matsunaga, T. 1990 γ-linolenic acid production by microalgae. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 24/25, 183-191.
Keywords: g-linolenic acid; Spirulina platensis; green algae; lipid; marine microalgae
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1007/BF02920244

Ohmori, K. & Ohmori, M. 1988 Ammonium assimilation in the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Jpn. J. Phycol. (Sôrui), 36, 12-16.
Strain(s): 39 

Asada, Y. & Kawamura, S. 1986 Screening for cyanobacteria that evolve molecular hydrogen under dark and anaerobic conditions. J. Ferment. Technol., 64, 553-556.
Strain(s): 19212336394621193277 
DOI: 10.1016/0385-6380(86)90081-6

Watanabe, M. M., Kasai, F., Hiwatari, T., Suda, S., Nei, T. 1984 Cryopreservation of microalgae in liquid nitrogen - Survival of algal cultures after freezing. Jpn. J. Freez. Dry., 30, 23-26 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 1819212426293139404144454650737475767780818788899091939598991001011201221311351371441512042072132572633794152219223522392579 

Hamana, K., Miyagawa, K., Matsuzaki, S. 1983 Occurrence of syn-homospermidine as the major polyamine in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 112, 606-613.
Strain(s): 19373921293275 
PubMed: 6405746
DOI: 10.1016/0006-291X(83)91507-3

Watanabe, M. M. 1977 Biosystematics in Closterium of sexual unicellular green algae and Calothrix and Spirulina of asexual filamentous blue-green algae, with special reference to the analyses of natural populations. Thesis D. Sci., Hokkaido University, 114 pp., 28 tables, 54 figs.
Strain(s): 39454651525354555658596061626364656667686970261262266268 

Watanabe, M. M. & Ichimura, T. 1977 Fresh- and salt-water forms of Spirulina platensis in axenic cultures. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Phycol., 25, Suppl. (Mem. Iss. Yamada), 371-377.
Strain(s): 394546 

Ichimura, T. & Itoh, T. 1977 17. Preservation methods of microalgae (I) [17. Bisaisôrui no hozonhô (I)]. In Preservation methods of microorganisms [Biseibutsu Hozonhô], Ed. by Nei, T., University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 355-373 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 19212223242728303132333436373839404144454647484950122123127131144152173175179180181182183185198200203206217226227241266267268295309310334338379436448450455527 

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