Strain number NIES-90  
Phylum Cyanophyta  
Class Cyanophyceae  
Scientific name Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Lemmermann  
Synonym Microcystis ichthyoblabe Kützing; Microcystis novacekii (Komárek) Compère; Microcystis viridis (A.Brown) Lemmermann; Microcystis wesenbergii Komárek  
Former name Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Lemmermann f. aeruginosa  
Common name Blue-green alga ; Cyanobacteria  
Locality (Date of collection) 46 Lake Kawaguchi, Japan (1981-06-**)  
Latitude / Longitude 35.5130910551 / 138.748515637 
Habitat (Isolation source) Freshwater (Lake water)  
History < Watanabe, Makoto M.  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Watanabe, Michiko H. (1981-06-**)  
Identified by Watanabe, Michiko H.  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2018 Feb]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  MA  
Temperature:  25 C
Light intensity:  20-30 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  20 D  
Gene information 16S rRNA ( LC557463 AB023256 ) , 23S rRNA ( LC557464 ) , cpcB, cpcA ( DQ648021 ) , ftsZ ( AB324854 ) , glnA ( AB324933 ) , gltX ( AB325012 ) , gyrB ( AB325091 ) , mcyA ( AB110105 ) , mcyD ( AB110116 ) , mcyG ( AB110127 ) , mcyJ ( AB110138 ) , pgi ( AB325170 ) , recA ( AB325249 ) , tpi ( AB325328 )  
Cell size (min - max) - 6 μm  
Characteristics Cyanobacterial water bloom (aoko) ; Toxicity ; microcystin (Tanabe et al. 2009b) ; ST5 (Tanabe et al. 2007)  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : KW-MB-2  
Remarks Toxicity; Cryopreserved; Axenic 
Jones, M. R., Pinto, E., Torres, M. A., Dörr, F., Mazur-Marzec, H., Szubert, K., Tartaglione, L., Dell'Aversano, C., Miles, C. O., Beach, D. G., McCarron, P., Sivonen, K., Fewer, D. P., Jokela, J., Janssen, E. M.-L. 2021 CyanoMetDB, a comprehensive public database of secondary metabolites from cyanobacteria. Water Res., 196, 117017 (article ID).
Strain(s): 90 
PubMed: 33765498
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117017

Erratt, K. J., Creed, I. F., Trick, C. G. 2020 Differential drawdown of ammonium, nitrate, and urea by freshwater chlorophytes and Cyanobacteria. J. Phycol., 56, 458-468.
Strain(s): 8890102843 
PubMed: 31875965
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12960

Yu, Y., Zeng, Y., Li, J., Yang, C., Zhang, X., Luo, F., Dai, X. 2019 An algicidal Streptomyces amritsarensis strain against Microcystis aeruginosa strongly inhibits microcystin synthesis simultaneously. Sci. Total Environ., 650, 34-43.
Keywords: Harmful algal blooms; Microcystins; Algicidal activity; Streptomyces amritsarensis
Strain(s): 4490843 
PubMed: 30195130
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.433

Tanabe, Y., Hodoki, Y., Sano, T., Tada, K., Watanabe, MM. 2018a Adaptation of the freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to brackish water is driven by recent horizontal transfer of sucrose genes. Front. Microbiol., 9, 1150 (article ID).
Keywords: Microcystis; bloom; salt tolerance; sucrose; genomics; brackish water; horizontal gene trasnfer; ecotype
Strain(s): 4487888990919899100101102103104105107108109112298299478604843901105010521059106310671069107010751076108510931094109811001101110211041105110611071108111311141115112211281130113111321134113911411142114311441150117011741175117611771179118111831185121112131214121512321234123812391252208820902091246524662467246824692470247124722473247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249424952546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561259225942595259625972598259926002601260226032604260526062607260826102611261226132617261826192620262126222623262426252626262826294234 
PubMed: 29922255
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01150

Xuan, H., Dai, X., Li, J., Zhang, X., Yang, C., Luo, F. 2017 A Bacillus sp. strain with antagonistic activity against Fusarium graminearum kills Microcystis aeruginosa selectively. Sci. Total Environ., 583, 214-221.
Keywords: Harmful algal blooms; Algicidal activity; Antagonism; Bifunctional biocontrol agent
Strain(s): 4490843 
PubMed: 28104332
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.055

Yamashita, N., Fukunaga, A., Tanaka, H. 2017 Examination of microplate AGP test using green algae, diatom and blue-green algae and water quality evaluation of river water and treated sewage effluent by AGP test. Environmental science, 30, 250-260 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Algal growth potential; mircoplate; bioassay; eutrophication; water quality evaluation
Strain(s): 3590805 
DOI: 10.11353/sesj.30.250

Sun, L.W., Jiang, W.J., Sato, H., Kawachi, M., Lu, X.W. 2016 Rapid classification and identification of Microcystis aeruginosa strains using MALDI-TOF MS and polygenetic analysis. PLoS One, 11, e0156275 (article ID).
Strain(s): 44878889901001011041051071091111124786048439011043105310581061106810691070107210761077108510941099110111041105111311151126113411351144115111571170121112131215121612171218122212241230123212331239 
PubMed: 27227555
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156275

Liu, Y., Hao, A., Iseri, Y., Li, C., Zhang, Z., Kuba, T. 2015 Possible survival mechanisms of Sinanodonta woodiana exposed to microcystin. J. JSCE, 3, 259-267.
Keywords: Sinanodonta woodiana; selective feeding mechanism; Microcystis-blooming; detoxification mechanism; scope for growth (SFG)
Strain(s): 902279 
DOI: 10.2208/journalofjsce.3.1_259

Liu, Y., Hao, A., Iseri, Y., Kuba, T., Zhang, A. 2014 A comparison of the mussel Anodonta woodiana's acute physiological responses to different algae diets. JOCET, 2, 126-131.
Keywords: Anodonta woodiana; microcystis aeruginosa; scenedesmus obliquus; scope for growth (SFG)
Strain(s): 902279 
DOI: 10.7763/JOCET.2014.V2.106

Shimizu, K., Sano, T., Kubota, R., Kobayashi, N., Tahara, M., Obama, T., Sugimoto, N., Nishimura, T., Ikarashi, Y. 2014 Effects of the amino acid constituents of microcystin variants on cytotoxicity to primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Toxins, 6, 168-179.
Keywords: microcystin; variants; cytotoxicity; primary cultured rat hepatocytes; environmental water
Strain(s): 90595610928 
PubMed: 24380975
DOI: 10.3390/toxins6010168

Kataoka, T., Homma, T., Nakano, S., Hodoki, Y., Ohbayashi, K., Kondo, R. 2013 PCR primers for selective detection of intra-species variations in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis. Harmful Algae, 23, 46-54.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; Quantitative PCR; 16S-23S rDNA ITS fegion; Selective detection; Intra-species variation
Strain(s): 4487909810110210310711111229860410621070 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2012.12.003

Zhang, X., Song, L., Zhang, P., He, J., Liu, Y., Matsuura, H., Watanabe, M. M. 2012 Grazing on toxic cyanobacterial blooms by tadpoles of edible frong Rana grylio. Phycol. Res., 60, 20-26.
Keywords: blue-green algae, cyanobacterial bloom; grazing; microcystin; Microcystis; pond; tadpole; trophic relationship
Strain(s): 90 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.2011.00627.x

Tanabe, Y., Watanabe, M. M. 2011 Local expansion of a panmictic lineage of water bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. PLoS One, 6, e17085 (article ID).
Strain(s): 4487888990919899100101102103104105106107108109110111112298299478604843901105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107210751076107710851090109110921093109410951096109710981100110111021103110411051106110711081113111411151122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311551156115711591160116111621163116411701171117211731174117511761177117911801181118311841185118612091211121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245125112521253125420882089209020912465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249625422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561259125922593259425952596259725982599260026012602260326042605260626072608260926102611261226132617261826192620262126222623262426252626262726282629 
PubMed: 21390221
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017085

Kuno, S., Yoshida, T., Kamikawa, R., Hosoda, N., Sako, Y. 2010 The distribution of a phage-related insertion sequence element in the cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa. Microbes Environ., 25, 295-301.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Microcystis; cyanophage; insertion sequence; horizontal gene transfer
Strain(s): 90919899101102112298604843105810671070108610981105 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME10125

Tanabe, Y., Sano, T., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M. 2009b Recombination, cryptic clades and neutral molecular divergence of the microcystin synthetase (mcy) genes of toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. BMC Evol. Biol., 9, 115 (article ID).
Strain(s): 44878889909198991001011021031041051061071081091101111122982994786048439011050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701072107510761077108510901091109210931094109510961097109811001101110211031104110511061107110811131114111511221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115511561157115911601161116211631164117011711172120912111213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451251125212531254246524662467246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792561 
PubMed: 19463155
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-115

Tanabe, Y., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M. 2007 Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) reveals high genetic diversity and clonal population structure of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Microbiology, 153, 3695-3703.
Strain(s): 44878889909198991001011021031041051061071081091101111122982994786048439019331050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701072107510761077108510901091109210931094109510961097109811001101110211031104110511061107110811131114111511221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115511561157115911601161116211631164117011711172120912111213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451251125212531254 
PubMed: 17975077
DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.2007/010645-0

Yoshida, T., Takashima, Y., Tomaru Y., Shirai, Y., Takao, Y., Hiroishi, S., Nagasaki, K. 2006 Isolation and characterization of a cyanophage infecting the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72, 1239-1247.
Strain(s): 44879098102104111112298604 
PubMed: 16461672
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.2.1239-1247.2006

Tanabe, Y., Kaya, K., Watanabe, M. M. 2004 Evidence for recombination in the microcystin synthetase (mcy) genes of toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis spp. J. Mol. Evol., 58, 633-641.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; microcystin synthetase; Microcystis; NRPS; recombination; split decomposition
Strain(s): 888990102103107 
PubMed: 15461420
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-004-2583-1

Yoshida, T., Yuki, Y., Lei, S., Chinen, H., Yoshida, M., Kondo, R., Hiroishi, S. 2003 Quantitative detection of toxic strains of the cyanobacterial genus Microcystis by competitive PCR. Microbes Environ., 18, 16-23.
Keywords: competitive PCR; microcystin; Microcystis; peptide synthetase; toxic cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 87888990102104105106108109110111112298299604 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.18.16

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 19212223242526272829303132333435363738394041444546505152535455565758596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123124125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147148150151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194195197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268271287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310311312313329334336337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Yuki, Y., Yoshida, T., Hiroishi, S. 2002 Molecular detection of the toxic cyanobacteria [Yûdoku aoko no bunshi-shikibetsu to yosatsu he-no ôyô]. In Series of Fisheries Science Vol. 143, Prevention and Extermination Strategies of Harmful Algal Blooms [Suisan-gaku shirîzu 134, Yûgai-yûdoku sôrui burûmu no yobô to kujo] , Eds. by Hiroishi, S., Imai, I. & Ishimaru, T., Koseisha-Koseikaku, Tokyo, pp. 43-53 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 738187888990919899100101102104105106108109110111112204230298299604 

Pan, H., Song, L., Liu, Y., Börner, T. 2002 Detection of hepatotoxic Microcystis strains by PCR with intact cells from both culture and environmental samples. Arch. Microbiol., 178, 421-427.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Microcystis; Microcystin; Toxin; Peptide synthetase; Whole-cell PCR
Strain(s): 429098101595610 
PubMed: 12420161
DOI: 10.1007/s00203-002-0464-9

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 2000 Genetic typing of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis in Japan using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Plankton Biol. Ecol., 47, 1-6.
Keywords: genetic typing; 16S rDNA; Microcystis; cyanobacteria; phylogenetic analysis
Strain(s): 878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Komura, M., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 2000 Molecular taxonomy of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 47, 25-33 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Microcystis; bacterial criteria; molecular analysis
Strain(s): 6878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M., Hata, Y. 1999 Rapid DNA extraction from a bloom-forming cyanobacterium. Microbes Environ., 14, 157-161.
Keywords: DNA extraction; PCR; Microcystis; cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.14.157

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 1998 Taxonomy of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 64, 291-292 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 87888990919899100101102104105106107108109110111112298299604 

Erhard, M., von Döhren, H., Jungblut, P. 1997 Rapid typing and elucidation of new secondary metabolites of intact cyanobacteria using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Nat. Biotechnol., 15, 906-909.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; secondary metabolites; MALD-TOF; PSD; microcystin; anabaenopeptolins
Strain(s): 90 
PubMed: 9306409
DOI: 10.1038/nbt0997-906

Ishida, K., Matsuda, H., Murakami, M., Yamaguchi, K. 1996 The absolute stereochemistry of micropeptin 90. Tetrahedron Letters, 37, 9225-9226.
Strain(s): 90 
DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(96)02189-2

Ishida, K., Murakami, M., Matsuda, H., Yamaguchi, K. 1995 Micropeptin 90, a plasmin and trypsin inhibitor from the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (NIES-90). Tetrahedron Letters, 36, 3535-3538.
Strain(s): 90 
DOI: 10.1016/0040-4039(95)00547-P

Watanabe, M. M., Sawaguchi, T. 1995 Cryopreservation of a water-bloom forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa f. aeruginosa. Phycol. Res., 43, 111-116.
Keywords: cryopreservation; DMSO; Microcystis aeruginosa f. aeruginosa; rapid cooling; two step cooling
Strain(s): 4490 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.1995.tb00012.x

Watanabe, M. M., Kasai, F., Hiwatari, T., Suda, S., Nei, T. 1984 Cryopreservation of microalgae in liquid nitrogen - Survival of algal cultures after freezing. Jpn. J. Freez. Dry., 30, 23-26 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 1819212426293139404144454650737475767780818788899091939598991001011201221311351371441512042072132572633794152219223522392579 

Unauthorized copying and replication of text, images, and tables in our homepage, are prohibited.