Strain number NIES-2541  
Phylum Chlorophyta  
Class Trebouxiophyceae  
Scientific name Chlorella variabilis Shihira & Krauss  
Synonym Chlorella paramecii Loefer 1936  
Former name  
Common name Green alga  
Locality (Date of collection) Okazaki, Aichi, Japan  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) (Paramecium bursaria OK1)  
History < Hoshina, Ryo  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Kamako, Shin-ichiro (2003-**-**)  
Identified by Hoshina, Ryo  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2018 Mar]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  CYTHUT  
Temperature:  20 C
Light intensity:  4-10 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  1 M  
Gene information rbcL ( AB260899 ) , 28S rRNA ( AB437257 ) , psaA ( AB260913 ) , 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ( AB162912 ) , 16S rRNA ( AB208587 )  
Cell size (min - max) 3 - 7 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics Symbiotic (Paramecium bursaria) ; Auxotrophic (Amino acid)  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : OK1-ZK  
Remarks Cryopreserved; Axenic 
Movie  
Reference
Agarkova, I. V., Lane, L. C., Dunigan, D. D., Quispe, C. F., Duncan, G. A., Milrot, E., Minsky, A., Esmael, A., Ghosh, J. F., Van Etten, J. L. 2021 Identification of a chlorovirus PBCV-1 protein involved in degrading the host cell wall during virus infection. Viruses-Basel, 13, 782 (article ID).
Keywords: Chlorella; Phycodnaviridae; chlorovirus; PBCV-1; algal lytic activity; cell wall degrading activity; alginate-like lyase
Strain(s): 25402541 
PubMed: 33924931
DOI: 10.3390/v13050782

Yokono, M., Takabayashi, A., Kishimoto, J., Fujita, T., Iwai, M., Murakami, A., Akimoto, S., Tanaka, A. 2019 The PSI-PSII megacomplex in green plants. Plant Cell Physiol., 60, 1098–1108.
Keywords: Energy transfer; Nonphotochemical quenching; Photosystem
Strain(s): 14429630322852541 
PubMed: 30753722
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcz026

Hamada, M., Schröder, K., Bathia, J., Kürn, U., Fraune, S., Khalturina, M., Khalturin, K., Shinzato, C., Satoh, N., Bosch, T. C.G. 2018 Metabolic co-dependence drives the evolutionary ancient Hydra-Chlorella symbiosis. eLife, 7, e35122 (article ID).
Keywords: Chlorella; Hydra; evolutionary biology; genome; nitrogen metabolism; symbiosis
Strain(s): 216622352541 
PubMed: 29848439
DOI: 10.7554/eLife.35122

Ogbonna, C., N., Chioke, O. J. 2018 Effects of moringa extracts on sedimentation and growth of Chlorella variabilis. Int. J. Appl. Nat. Sci., 7, 131-138.
Keywords: Cell Growth; Cell Sedimentation; Chlorella variabilis; Harvesting of Microalgae; Moringa Oliefera; Seed Extract
Strain(s): 2541 

Quispe, C. F., Sonderman, O., Khasin, M., Riekhof, W. R., Van Etten, J. L., Nickerson, K. W. 2016 Comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and physiology distinguish symbiotic from free-living Chlorella strains. Algal Res., 18, 332-340.
Keywords: Chlorella variabilis; Alga-paramecium symbiosis; Algal nitrogen metabolism; Amino acid transporters
Strain(s): 25402541 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.06.001

Kunugi, M., Satoh. S., Ihara. K., Shibata. K., Yamagishi. Y., Kogame. K., Obokata. J., Takabayashi. A., Tanaka. A. 2016 Evolution of green plants accompanied changes in light-harvesting systems. Plant Cell Physiol., 57, 1231-1243.
Keywords: Evolution; Green algae; Land plants; Light adaptation; Photosystem
Strain(s): 254141925412582 
PubMed: 27057002
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcw071

Hoshina, R., Imamura, N. 2009 Phylogenetically close group I introns with different positions among Paramecium bursaria photobionts imply a primitive stage of intron diversification. Mol. Biol. Evol., 26, 1309-1319.
Keywords: degenerative homing; intron diversification; intron transposition; Paramecium bursaria symbiotic algae; reverse splicing
Strain(s): 2541 
PubMed: 19279084
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msp044

Kato, Y., Ueno, S., Imamura, N. 2006 Studies on the nitrogen utilization of endosymbiotic algae isolated from Japanese Paramecium bursaria. Plant Sci., 170, 481-486.
Keywords: Endosymbiont; Paramecium bursaria; Nitrogen utilization; Chlorella
Strain(s): 22725402541 
DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.09.018

Hoshina, R., Kato, Y., Kamako, S., Imamura, N. 2005 Genetic evidence of "American" and "European" type symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria Ehrenberg. Plant Biol., 7, 526-532.
Keywords: 18S rDNA; "American"; "European"; Chlorella; ITS; Paramecium bursaria; Phylogeny
Strain(s): 25402541 
DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-865912

Hoshina, R., Kamako, S.-I., Imamura, N. 2004 Phylogenetic position of endosymbiotic green algae in Paramecium bursaria Ehrenberg from Japan. Plant Biol., 6, 447-453.
Keywords: 18S rDNA; Chlorella; endosymbiont; ITS; Paramecium bursaria; phylogeny
Strain(s): 25402541 
DOI: 10.1055/s-2004-820888

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