Strain number NIES-98  
Phylum Cyanophyta  
Class Cyanophyceae  
Scientific name Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Lemmermann  
Synonym Microcystis ichthyoblabe Kützing; Microcystis novacekii (Komárek) Compère; Microcystis viridis (A.Brown) Lemmermann; Microcystis wesenbergii Komárek  
Former name Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Lemmermann f. flos-aquae (Wittrock) Elenkin  
Common name Blue-green alga ; Cyanobacteria  
Locality (Date of collection) Lake Kasumigaura, Ibaraki, Japan (1982-09-**)  
Latitude / Longitude 36.0428477398 / 140.373233439 
Habitat (Isolation source) Freshwater (Lake water)  
History < Watanabe, Makoto M.  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Watanabe, Michiko H. (1982-09-**)  
Identified by Watanabe, Michiko H.  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  MA  
Temperature:  25 C
Light intensity:  20-30 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  1 M  
Gene information Whole-genome ( MDZH01000000 ) , 16S rRNA ( D89032 U40337 ) , aerA-aerB ( AM773660 ) , cpcB, cpcA ( AF385384 AY568685 ) , ftsZ ( AB324855 ) , glnA ( AB324934 ) , gltX ( AB325013 ) , gyrB ( AB325092 ) , hypX, uma1 ( AB254435 ) , pgi ( AB325171 ) , recA ( AB325250 ) , tpi ( AB325329 )  
Cell size (min - max) - 5 μm  
Characteristics Cyanobacterial water bloom (aoko) ; microcyastin-negative ; ST6 (Tanabe et al. 2007) ; Genome decoded strain (Yamaguchi et al. 2016)  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : K-MF-K-3  
Remarks Cryopreserved; Axenic 
Chen, M., Tian, L.-L., Ren, C.-Y., Xu, C.-Y., Wang, Y.-Y., Li, L. 2019 Extracellular polysaccharide synthesis in a bloom-forming strain of Microcystis aeruginosa: implications for colonization and buoyancy. Sci Rep, 9, 1251 (article ID).
Strain(s): 87889820429884324812549 
PubMed: 30718739
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-37398-6

Pancrace, C., Ishida, K., Briand, E., Pichi, D. G., Weiz, A. R., Guljamow, A., Scalvenzi, T., Sassoon, N., Hertweck, C., Dittmann, E., Gugger, M. 2019 Unique biosynthetic pathway in bloom-Forming Cyanobacterial genus Microcystis jointly assembles cytotoxic aeruginoguanidines and microguanidines. ACS Chem. Biol., 14, 67-75.
Strain(s): 98843 
PubMed: 30556994
DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.8b00918

Tanabe, Y., Hodoki, Y., Sano, T., Tada, K., Watanabe, MM. 2018a Adaptation of the freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to brackish water is driven by recent horizontal transfer of sucrose genes. Front. Microbiol., 9, 1150 (article ID).
Keywords: Microcystis; bloom; salt tolerance; sucrose; genomics; brackish water; horizontal gene trasnfer; ecotype
Strain(s): 4487888990919899100101102103104105107108109112298299478604843901105010521059106310671069107010751076108510931094109811001101110211041105110611071108111311141115112211281130113111321134113911411142114311441150117011741175117611771179118111831185121112131214121512321234123812391252208820902091246524662467246824692470247124722473247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249424952546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561259225942595259625972598259926002601260226032604260526062607260826102611261226132617261826192620262126222623262426252626262826294234 
PubMed: 29922255
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01150

Yamaguchi, H., Suzuki, S., Sano, T., Tanabe, Y., Nakajima, N., Kawachi, M. 2016 Draft genome sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-98, a non-microcystin-producing cyanobacterium from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. GenomeA, 4, e01187-16 (article ID).
Strain(s): 98 
PubMed: 27834696
DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.01187-16

Kataoka, T., Homma, T., Nakano, S., Hodoki, Y., Ohbayashi, K., Kondo, R. 2013 PCR primers for selective detection of intra-species variations in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis. Harmful Algae, 23, 46-54.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; Quantitative PCR; 16S-23S rDNA ITS fegion; Selective detection; Intra-species variation
Strain(s): 4487909810110210310711111229860410621070 
DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2012.12.003

Tanabe, Y., Watanabe, M. M. 2011 Local expansion of a panmictic lineage of water bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. PLoS One, 6, e17085 (article ID).
Strain(s): 4487888990919899100101102103104105106107108109110111112298299478604843901105010511052105310541055105610571058105910601061106210631064106510661067106810691070107210751076107710851090109110921093109410951096109710981100110111021103110411051106110711081113111411151122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311551156115711591160116111621163116411701171117211731174117511761177117911801181118311841185118612091211121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245125112521253125420882089209020912465246624672468246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792480248124822483248424852486248724882489249024912492249324942495249625422543254425452546254725482549255025512552255325542555255625572558255925602561259125922593259425952596259725982599260026012602260326042605260626072608260926102611261226132617261826192620262126222623262426252626262726282629 
PubMed: 21390221
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017085

Sakai, H., Katayama, H., Oguma, K., Ohgaki, S. 2011 Effect of photoreactivation on ultraviolet inactivation of Microcystis aeruginos. Water Sci. Technol., 63, 1224-1229.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; photoreactivation; UV treatment
Strain(s): 98 
PubMed: 21436560
DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.362

Kuno, S., Yoshida, T., Kamikawa, R., Hosoda, N., Sako, Y. 2010 The distribution of a phage-related insertion sequence element in the cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa. Microbes Environ., 25, 295-301.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Microcystis; cyanophage; insertion sequence; horizontal gene transfer
Strain(s): 90919899101102112298604843105810671070108610981105 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME10125

Tanabe, Y., Sano, T., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M. 2009b Recombination, cryptic clades and neutral molecular divergence of the microcystin synthetase (mcy) genes of toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. BMC Evol. Biol., 9, 115 (article ID).
Strain(s): 44878889909198991001011021031041051061071081091101111122982994786048439011050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701072107510761077108510901091109210931094109510961097109811001101110211031104110511061107110811131114111511221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115511561157115911601161116211631164117011711172120912111213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451251125212531254246524662467246924702471247224732474247524762477247824792561 
PubMed: 19463155
DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-115

Ishida, K., Welker, M., Christiansen, G., Cadel-Six, S., Bouchier, C., Dittmann, E., Hertweck, C., de Marsac, N. T. 2009 Plasticity and evolution of aeruginosin biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 75, 2017-2026.
Strain(s): 98843 
PubMed: 19201978
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02258-08

Jang, M.-H., Ha, K., Takamura, N. 2008 Microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa exposed to different stages of herbivorous zooplankton. Toxicon, 51, 882-889.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; induced defense; different stages of zooplankton; infochemicals; intracellular microcystin; extracellular microcystin
Strain(s): 8898103107 
PubMed: 18243271
DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2007.12.015

Cadel-Six, S., Dauga, C., Castets, A. M., Rippka, R., Bouchier, C., de Marsac, N. T., Welker, M. 2008 Halogenase genes in nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters of Microcystis (Cyanobacteria): sporadic distribution and evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol., 25, 2031-2041.
Keywords: halogenase; cyanopeptolin; aeruginosin; DNA rearrangement; secondary peptide metabolite; chlorination; internal transcribed spacer; phylogeny
Strain(s): 8998101102298 
PubMed: 18614525
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msn150

Tomioka, N., Nagai, T., Kawasaki, T., Imai, A., Kohata, K. 2008 Quantification of Microcystis in a eutrophic lake by simple DNA extraction and SYBR green real-time PCR. Microbes Environ., 23, 306-312.
Keywords: Microcystis; quantification; SYBR Green I; DNA extraction; eutrophic lake
Strain(s): 9899204604611843946961 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME08515

Wu, Z. X., Gan, N. Q., Song, L. R. 2007 Genetic diversity: geographical distribution and toxin profiles of Microcystis strains (cyanobacteria) in China. J. Integr. Plant Biol., 49(3), 262-269.
Keywords: diversity; geographical distribution; microcystin; Microcystis
Strain(s): 98102 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1672-9072.2006.00368.x

Jang, M.-H., Jung, J.-M., Takamura, N. 2007 Changes in microcystin production in cyanobacteria exposed to zooplankton at different population densities and infochemical concentrations. Limnol. Oceanogr., 52, 1454-1466.
Strain(s): 8898107 
DOI: 10.4319/lo.2007.52.4.1454

Tanabe, Y., Kasai, F., Watanabe, M. M. 2007 Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) reveals high genetic diversity and clonal population structure of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Microbiology, 153, 3695-3703.
Strain(s): 44878889909198991001011021031041051061071081091101111122982994786048439019331050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701072107510761077108510901091109210931094109510961097109811001101110211031104110511061107110811131114111511221123112411251126112711281129113011311132113311341135113611371138113911401141114211431144114511461147114811491150115111521153115511561157115911601161116211631164117011711172120912111213121412151216121712181219122012211222122312241225122612271228122912301231123212331234123512361237123812391240124112421243124412451251125212531254 
PubMed: 17975077
DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.2007/010645-0

Sakai, H., Oguma, K., Katayama, H., Ohgaki, S. 2007 Effects of low- or medium-pressure ultraviolet lamp irradiation on Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena variabilis. Water Res., 41, 11-18.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; Anabaena variabilis; Low-pressure ultraviolet lamp; Medium-pressure ultraviolet lamp; DNA damage; Photosynthetic activity
Strain(s): 2398 
PubMed: 17097715
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.09.025

Yoshida, T., Takashima, Y., Tomaru Y., Shirai, Y., Takao, Y., Hiroishi, S., Nagasaki, K. 2006 Isolation and characterization of a cyanophage infecting the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72, 1239-1247.
Strain(s): 44879098102104111112298604 
PubMed: 16461672
DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.2.1239-1247.2006

Sakai, H., Ogawa, K., Katayama, H., Ohgaki, S. 2005 Low- or medium-pressure UV lamp inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Water Environ. Technol., 3, 55-61.
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa; low-pressure (LP) UV lamp; medium-pressure (MP) UV lamp; endonuclease sensitive site (ESS) assay; photoreactivation
Strain(s): 98 

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 19212223242526272829303132333435363738394041444546505152535455565758596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123124125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147148150151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194195197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268271287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310311312313329334336337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Yuki, Y., Yoshida, T., Hiroishi, S. 2002 Molecular detection of the toxic cyanobacteria [Yûdoku aoko no bunshi-shikibetsu to yosatsu he-no ôyô]. In Series of Fisheries Science Vol. 143, Prevention and Extermination Strategies of Harmful Algal Blooms [Suisan-gaku shirîzu 134, Yûgai-yûdoku sôrui burûmu no yobô to kujo] , Eds. by Hiroishi, S., Imai, I. & Ishimaru, T., Koseisha-Koseikaku, Tokyo, pp. 43-53 (in Japanese).
Strain(s): 738187888990919899100101102104105106108109110111112204230298299604 

Pan, H., Song, L., Liu, Y., Börner, T. 2002 Detection of hepatotoxic Microcystis strains by PCR with intact cells from both culture and environmental samples. Arch. Microbiol., 178, 421-427.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Microcystis; Microcystin; Toxin; Peptide synthetase; Whole-cell PCR
Strain(s): 429098101595610 
PubMed: 12420161
DOI: 10.1007/s00203-002-0464-9

Lyra, C., Suomalainen, S., Gugger, M., Vezie, C., Sundman, P., Paulin, L., Sivonen, K. 2001 Molecular characterization of planktic cyanobacteria of Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis and Planktothrix genera. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 51, 13-526.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; 16S rRNA gene; RFLP; sequencing; REP; ERIC
Strain(s): 41447379818998102104 
DOI: 10.1099/00207713-51-2-513

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 2000 Genetic typing of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis in Japan using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Plankton Biol. Ecol., 47, 1-6.
Keywords: genetic typing; 16S rDNA; Microcystis; cyanobacteria; phylogenetic analysis
Strain(s): 878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Komura, M., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 2000 Molecular taxonomy of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, 47, 25-33 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Microcystis; bacterial criteria; molecular analysis
Strain(s): 6878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 

Kondo, R., Yoshida, T., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S. 2000 DNA-DNA reassociation among a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 50, 767-770.
Keywords: DNA hybridization; DNA G+C content; cyanobacteria; Microcystis
Strain(s): 878998102104111112298604 
PubMed: 10758887
DOI: 10.1099/00207713-50-2-767

Imai, A., Fukushima, T., Matsushige, K. 1999 Effects of aquatic humic substances on the growth of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. J. Jpn. Soc. Wat. Environ. [Mizukankyô Gakkai Shi], 22, 555-560 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: aquatic humic substances; Microcystis aeruginosa; iron limitation; siderophore; Lake Kasumigaura
Strain(s): 98 

Imai, A., Fukushima, T., Matsushige, K. 1999 Effects of iron limitation and aquatic humic substances on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 56, 1929-1937.
Strain(s): 98 
DOI: 10.1139/f99-131

Ishida, K., Okita, Y., Matsuda, H., Okino, T., Murakami, M. 1999 Aeruginosins, protease inhibitors from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Tetrahedron, 55, 10971-10988.
Strain(s): 8998298 
DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4020(99)00621-3

Kinugawa, K., Etoh, M., Kuba, T., Kusuda, T. 1999 A possibility of control and prevention of excessive phytoplankton growth by photochromism. J. Jpn. Soc. Wat. Environ., 22, 932-937 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: photochromism; spironaphthoxazine; shielding sunlight; algal growth potential; eutrophication
Strain(s): 98 

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M., Hata, Y. 1999 Rapid DNA extraction from a bloom-forming cyanobacterium. Microbes Environ., 14, 157-161.
Keywords: DNA extraction; PCR; Microcystis; cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 878889909198991001011021041051061081091101111122982996041055106110681076109010911105112211421164 
DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.14.157

Kondo, R., Kagiya, G., Yuki, Y., Hiroishi, S., Watanabe, M. 1998 Taxonomy of a bloom-forming cyanobacterial genus Microcystis. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 64, 291-292 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 87888990919899100101102104105106107108109110111112298299604 

Li, R., Yokota, A., Sugiyama, J., Watanabe, M., Hiroki, M., Watanabe, M. M. 1998 Chemotaxonomy of planktonic cyanobacteria based on non-polar and 3-hydroxy fatty acid composition. Phycol. Res., 46, 21-28.
Keywords: 3-hydroxy fatty acids; chemotaxonomy; fatty acid; non-polar fatty acids; planktonic cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 2740447678798081878998102104111112204205207298604810821825826 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1835.1998.tb00093.x

Forni, C., Telo, F. R., Caiola, M. G. 1997 Comparative analysis of the polysaccharides produced by different species of Microcystis (Chroococcales, Cyanophyta) . Phycologia, 36, 181-185.
Strain(s): 8798102112 
DOI: 10.2216/i0031-8884-36-3-181.1

Murakami, M., Ishida, K., Okino, T., Okita, Y., Matsuda, H., Yamaguchi, K. 1995 Aeruginosins 98-A and B, trypsin inhibitors from the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (NIES-98). Tetrahedron Letters, 36, 2785-2788.
Strain(s): 98 
DOI: 10.1016/0040-4039(95)00396-T

Neilan, B. A., Jacobs, D., Goodman, A. E. 1995 Genetic diversity and phylogeny of toxic cyanobacteria determined by DNA polymorphisms within the phycocyanin locus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61, 3875-3883.
Strain(s): 244041447376788081878998102107111112204207298 
PubMed: 8526499

Watanabe, M. F., Oishi, S., Watanabe, Y., Watanabe, M. 1986 Strong probability of lethal toxicity in the blue-green alga Microcystis viridis Lemmermann. J. Phycol., 22, 552-556.
Strain(s): 981001011031122981053105410551058105910671091 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.1986.tb02502.x

Watanabe, M. M., Kasai, F., Hiwatari, T., Suda, S., Nei, T. 1984 Cryopreservation of microalgae in liquid nitrogen - Survival of algal cultures after freezing. Jpn. J. Freez. Dry., 30, 23-26 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 1819212426293139404144454650737475767780818788899091939598991001011201221311351371441512042072132572633794152219223522392579 

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