A typical bloom-forming unicellular cyanobacterium with gas vacuoles, which accumulates in the surface of lakes and reservoirs. Some strains produce hepatotoxins known as microcystins. Whole genome sequences were determined by the collaborative research group of Kazusa DNA Research Institute, University of Tsukuba and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in 2007.
The genome of M. aeruginosa is a single, circular chromosome of ca. 6 Mbp, comprising 6,325 protein-encoding genes. The microcystin synthase gene cluster
(mcyA-J) was also found. Transposons amount to ca. 12% of the entire genome, whereas the number of genes for histidine kinases and response regulators is small.
T. elongatus is unicellular, non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium isolated from a hot spring in Beppu, Japan. This alga is thermophilic and maximum growth is obtained at 57°C.
Whole genome sequences were determined in 2002 as the strain BP-1. The genome of T. elongatus is a single circular chromosome of ca. 2.6 Mbp, comprising 2,475 protein-encoding genes.
This green, unicellular flagellate is famous as an experimental material for genetics and photosynthesis. This strain was transferred to the NIES-Collection from the IAM Collection, in which it was known as C-9, which has been widely used and deposited as a descendant of the original pair derived from a single zygospore isolated in Massachusetts in 1945, through Professors Sager and then Tsubo to the IAM Collection.
Kazusa DNA Research Institute and Kyoto University have conducted EST analyses of the strain.
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii EST index
Nishimura, Y., Kamikawa, R., Hashimoto, T., Inagaki, Y. 2014. An intronic open reading frame was released from one of group II introns in the mitochondrial genome of the haptophyte Chrysochromulina sp. NIES-1333. Mobile Genetic Elements, 4, e29384 (article ID).
C. merolae is a tiny unicellular red alga isolated from high temperature (45-50°C) and acidic (pH=1.0-3.0) environment, with simple organization containing each one organelle such as nucleus, mitochondrion, chloroplast, microbody and Golgi apparatus. Whole genome analyses (including nuclear, mitochondrioal and chloroplast genomes) were completed until 2004 as the strain 10D by the research team of Prof. Kuroiwa.
The genome size of C. merolae is ca. 16 Mbp. The genome includes 20 chromosomes and comprises 4,775 protein-encoding proteins. The genome lacks introns in almost all genes and contains only three copies of ribosomal DNA units.
Cattolico, R. A., Jacobs, M. A., Zhou, Y., Chang, J., Duplessis, M., Lybrand, T., McKay, J., Ong, H. C., Sims, E., Rocap, G. 2008. Chloroplast genome sequencing analysis of
Heterosigma akashiwo CCAM452 (West Atlantic) and NIES293 (West Pacific) strains. BMC Genomics, 9, 211-230.
Hamaji, T. et al. 2013. Mitochondrial and Plastid Genomes of the Colonial Green Alga, Gonium pectorale Give Insights into the Origins of Organelle DNA Architecture within the Volvocales. PLoS ONE, 8: e57177.
Smith, D. R., Hamaji, T., Olson, B. J., Durand, P. M., Ferris, P., Michod, R. E., Featherston, J., Nozaki, H., Keeling, P. J. 2013. Organelle genome complexity scales positively with organism size in volvocine green algae. Mol. Biol. Evol., 30, 793-797.