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Strain number NIES-144  
Phylum Chlorophyta  
Class Chlorophyceae  
Scientific name Haematococcus lacustris (Girod-Chantrans) Rostafinski  
Synonym Volvox lacustris Gir.-Chantr. 1802; Sphaerella lacustris (Gir.-Chantr.) Wittr. ex Hansg. 1888; Lepraria kermesina Wrangel 1824; Sphaerella wrangelii Sommerf. 1824, nom. illeg.; Chlorococcum kermesinum (Wrangel) Fr. 1825; Protococcus kermesinus (Wrangel) C.Agardh 1825; Byssus kermesinum (Wrangel) Wahlenb. 1826; Globulina kermesinum (Wrangel) Turpin 1836; Haematococcus kermesinus (Wrangel) Flot. 1844; Protococcus monospermus Corda 1833; Haematococcus cordae Menegh. 1844; Protosphaeria cordae (Menegh.) Trevis. 1848; Disceraea purpurea Morren & C.Morren 1841; Haematococcus pluvialis Flot. 1844; Protococcus pluvialis (Flot.) Kütz. 1845; Protosphaeria pluvialis (Flot.) Trevis. 1848; Chlamydococcus pluvialis (Flot.) A.Braun 1850 (“1849”); Hysginum pluviale (Flot.) Perty 1852; Sphaerella pluvialis (Flot.) Wittr. 1886; Haematococcus longistigma H.Ettl 1954; Haematococcus buetschlii var. bahusiensis Skuja 1956  
Former name  
Common name Green alga  
Locality (Date of collection) Sapporo Hokkaido Japan (1964-07-16)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Freshwater (Lake water)  
History < IAM (1983);  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Ichimura, Terunobu (1964-07-16)  
Identified by Ichimura, Terunobu  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2013 Jan]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  C (agar)  
Temperature:  20 (25) C
Light intensity:  2 (15-19) µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  4 M (14 D)  
Gene information 18S rRNA ( AB360747 ) , atpB ( AB084325 ) , psaB ( AB084365 ) , 14-3-3 protein ( AY973204 ) , bkt3 ( AY603347 ) , Hsp90 ( JN627245 ) , lycopene β-cyclase ( AY182008 ) , rbcL ( AB084336 AB084337 )  
Cell size (min - max) 15 - 35 μm  
Organization Unicellular; Flagellate 
Characteristics Astaxanthin production ; Homothallic ; Isogamy  
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM C-392
Other strain no. : MKF-8  
Remarks Cryopreserved 
Allewaert, C. C., Vanormelingen, P., Daveloose, I., Vyverman, T. 2017 Intraspecific trait variation affecting astaxanthin productivity in two Haematococcus (Chlorophyceae) species. Algal Research, 21, 191-202.
Keywords: Astaxanthin productivity; Haematococcus pluvialis; Haematococcus rubicundus; Functional traits; Common-garden experiment; Intraspecific variation
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.10.021

Kiperstok, A. C., Sebestyén, P., Podola, B., Melkonian, M. 2017 Biofilm cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis enables a highly productive one-phase process for astaxanthin production using high light intensities. Algal Research, 21, 213-222.
Keywords: Microalgae; Immobilized cultivation; Irradiation; Carbon dioxide; Twin-Layer; Carotenoid
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.10.025

Choi, Y. Y., Joun, J. M., Lee, J., Hong, M. E., Pham, H., Chang, W. S., Sim, S. J. 2017 Development of large-scale and economic pH control system for outdoor cultivation of microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis using industrial flue. Biores. Technol., ,
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Astaxanthin; Polymeric thin-film photobioreactor; Autotrophic buffer system; Flue gas
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.05.147

Hong, M.-E., Choi, Y. Y., Sim, S. J. 2016 Effect of red cyst cell inoculation and iron (II) supplementation on autotrophic astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis under outdoor summer conditions. J. Biotechnol., 218, 25–33.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Photoautotrophic culture; Astaxanthin; Summer outdoor conditions; Red cyst cell (aplanospore) inoculation method; Iron(Fe2+) supplementation method
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.11.019

Zhang, Z., Wang, B., Hu, Q., Sommerfeld, M., Li, Y., Han, D. 2016 A new paradigm for producing astaxanthin from the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotech. Bioeng., 113, 2088-2099.
Keywords: astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; heterotrophy; acclimation
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1002/bit.25976

Munakata, H., Nakada, T., Nakahigashi, K., Nozaki, H., Tomita, M. 2016 Phylogenetic position and molecular chronology of a colonial green flagellate, Stephanosphaera pluvialis (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae), among unicellular algae. J. Eucaryot. Microbiol., 63, 340-348.
Keywords: Balticola; coloniality; divergence time; evolution; molecular phylogeny
Strain(s): 123144421428432439446567569571656861887968104822932564 
DOI: 10.1111/jeu.12283

Lee, T. Y., Praveenkumar, R., Oh, Y. K. Lee, K., Kim, S. H. 2016 Alginate microgels created by selective coalescence between core drops paired with an ultrathin shell. J. Mater. Chem. B, 4, 3232-3238.
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1039/c6tb00580b

Poonkum, W., Powtongsook, S., Pavasant, P. 2015 Astaxanthin induction in microalga H. pluvialis with flat panel airlift photobioreactors under indoor and outdoor conditions. Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol., 45, 1-17.
Keywords: carotenoid; Haematococcus pluvialis; mature cyst; microalgae; pigment; scale-up
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2013.867871

Wen, Z., Liu, Z., Hou, Y., Liu, C., Gao, F., Zheng, Y., Chen, F. 2015 Ethanol induced astaxanthin accumulation and transcriptional expression of carotenogenic genes in Haematococcus pluvialis. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 78, 10-17.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Astaxanthin; Ethanol; ipi; Fed-batch induction
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2015.06.010

Giannelli, L., Yamada, H., Katsuda, T., Yamaji, H. 2015 Effects of temperature on the astaxanthin productivity and light harvesting characteristics of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 119, 345–350.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Photobioreactor; Astaxanthin; Photosynthetic efficiency
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.09.002

Kwak, H. S., Kim, J. Y. H., Sim, S. J. 2015 A microreactor system for cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis and astaxanthin production. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 15, 1618-1623.
Keywords: Astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; Microfluidic Devices; Nile Red; PDMS
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2015.9321

Giannelli, L., Yamaji, H., Katsuda, T. 2015 A numerical model for the quantification of light/dark cycles in microalgal cultures: Air-lift and bubble-column photobioreactor analysis by means of computational fluid dynamics. J. Chem. Eng. Jpn., 48, 61-71.
Keywords: Microalgae; Photobioreactor; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Flashing Light; Light Conversion Efficiency
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1252/jcej.14we093

Wan, M., Hou, D., Li, Y., Fan, J., Huang, J., Liang, S., Wang, W., Pan, R., Wang, J., Li, S. 2014 The effective photoinduction of Haematococcus pluvialis for accumulating astaxanthin with attached cultivation. Biores. Technol., 163, 26-32.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Astaxanthin; Biomass; Attached cultivation; Photoinduction
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.04.017

Su, Y., Wang, J., Shi, M., Niu, X., Yu, X., Gao, L., Zhang, X., Chen, L., Zhang, W. 2014 Metabolomic and network analysis of astaxanthin-producing Haematococcus pluvialis under various stress conditions. Biores. Technol., 170, 522-529.
Keywords: Astaxanthin; Stress; Metabolomics; Metabolic network; Haematococcus pluvialis
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.08.018

Liu, J., Gerken, H., Li, Y. 2014 Single-tube colony PCR for DNA amplification and transformant screening of oleaginous microalgae. J. Appl. Microbiol., 26, 1719-1726.
Keywords: Biofuels; Colony PCR; High throughput; Microalgae; Single tube; Transformant screening
Strain(s): 144 

Yoo, J. J., Choi, S. P., Kim, J. Y. H., Chang, W. S., Sim, S. J. 2013 Development of thin-film photo-bioreactor and its application to outdoor culture of microalgae. Bioprocess. Biosyst. Eng., 36, 729-736.
Keywords: Photo-bioreactor; Microalgae; Haematococcus pluvialis; Scale-up; Outdoor
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1007/s00449-013-0898-2

Zhang, L., Fan, Y., Shi, F., Qin, S., Liu, B. 2012 Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of a cytosolic HSP90 gene from Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Appl. Phycol., 24, 1601-1612.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Heat shock protein 90; cDNA cloning; qRT-PCR; mRNA expression
Strain(s): 144 

Yoo, J. J., Choi, S. P., Kim, B. W., Sim, S. J. 2012 Optimal design of scalable photo-bioreactor for phototropic culturing of Haematococcus pluvialis. Bioprocess. Biosyst. Eng., 35, 309-315.
Keywords: Photo-bioreactor; Haematococcus pluvialis; Astaxanthin; Improved factors; Mixing
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1007/s00449-011-0616-x

Hong, M. E., Choi, S. P., Park, Y. I., Kim, Y. K., Chang, W. S., Kim, B. W., Sim, S. J. 2012 Astaxanthin production by a highly photosensitive Haematococcus mutant. Process Biochem., 47, 1972–1979.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Astaxanthin; Photo-inducible mutant; Photo-sensitivity
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1016/j.procbio.2012.07.007

Takaichi, S. 2011 Carotenoids in algae: distributions, biosyntheses and functions. Mar. Drugs, 9, 1101-1118.
Keywords: algal phylogeny; biosynthesis of carotenoids; distribution of carotenoids; function of carotenoids; pigment-protein complex
Strain(s): 14413323377 
DOI: 10.3390/md9061101

Issarapayup, K., Powtongsook, S., Pavasant, P. 2011 Economical review of Haematococcus pluvialis culture in flat-panel airlift photobioreactors. Aquac. Eng., 44, 65-71.
Keywords: Airlift photobioreactor; Microalga; Economical analysis; Bioprocess design
Strain(s): 144 

Kunugi, M., Matsumoto, M., Kondo, K. 2010 Effect of culture conditions on production of useful materials by Haematococcus pluvialis. Bull. Soc. Sea Water Sci., Jpn, 64, 297-304.
Keywords: biomass; microalgae; carbon dioxide; useful material production
Strain(s): 144 

Wu, Z.Y., Chen, G.Q., Chong, S.K., Mak, N.-K., Chen, F., Jiang, Y. 2010 Ultraviolet-B radiation improves astaxanthin accumulation in green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnol. Lett., 32, 1911-1914.
Keywords: Antioxidant enzyme; Astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; Ultraviolet-B radiation
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1007/s10529-010-0371-0

Issarapayup, K., Powtongsook, S., Pavasant, P. 2009 Flat panel airlift photobioreactors for cultivation of vegetative cells of microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Biotechnol., 142, 227-232.
Keywords: airlift photobioreactor; vegetative cells; astaxanthin; bioprocess design; microalga
Strain(s): 144 

Katsuda, T., Shiraishi, H., Ishizu, N., Ranjbar, R., Katoh, S. 2008 Effect of light intensity and frequency of flashing light from blue light emitting diodes on astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 105, 216-220.
Keywords: flashing light; blue light emitting diode; light intensity; astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis
Strain(s): 144 

Ranjbar, R., Inoue, R., Katsuda, T., Yamaji, H., Katoh, S. 2008 High efficiency production of astaxanthin in an airlift photobioreactor. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 106, 204-207.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; airlift bubble column; liquid circulation;nirate concentration; astaxanthin
Strain(s): 144 

Ranjbar, R., Inoue, R., Shiraishi, H., Katsuda, T., Katoh, S. 2008 High efficiency production of astaxanthin by autotrophic cultivation of Haematococcus pluvialis in a bubble column photobioreactor. Biochem. Eng. J., 39, 575-580.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; autotrophic culture; bubble column; Fed-batch; nitrate concentration astaxanthin
Strain(s): 144 

Hu, ZY., Li, YT., Sommerfeld, M., Chen, F., Hu, Q. 2008 Enhanced protection against oxidative stress in an astaxanthin-overproduction Haematococcus mutant (Chlorophyceae). Eur. J. Phycol., 43, 365-376.
Keywords: astaxanthin; carotenogenesis; flow cytometry; Haematococcus pluvialis; oxidative stress; pigment mutant
Strain(s): 144 

Kang, C.-D., Sim, S.-J. 2008 Direct extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus culture using vegetable oils. Biotechnol. Lett., 30, 441–444.
Keywords: Astaxanthin; Direct extraction; Green process; Haematococcus pluvialis; Vegetable oil
Strain(s): 144 

Shimonaga, T., Konishi, M., Oyama, Y., Fujiwara, S., Satoh, A., Fujita, N., Colleoni, C., Buléon, A., Putaux, J.-L., Ball, S. G., Yokoyma, A., Hara, Y., Nakamura, Y., Tsuzuki, M. 2008 Variation in Storage α-polyglucans of the Porphyridiales (Rhodophyta). Plant Cell Physiol., 49, 103-116.
Keywords: Amylose; Floridean starch; Glycogen; Porphyridiales; Rhodophyta; Semi-amylopection
Strain(s): 181445305512138216022582280 

Grewe, C., Griehl, C. 2008 Time- and media-dependent secondary carotenoid accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnol. J., 3, 1232-1244.
Keywords: Astaxanthin; Carotenoid biosynthesis; ; Haematococcus pluvialis; LC-MS; Media
Strain(s): 144 

Domínguez-Bocanegra, A. R., Ponce-Noyola, T., Torres-Muñoz, J. A. 2007 Astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis: a comparative study. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75, 783-791.
Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis; Phaffia rhodozyma; Astaxanthin synthesis; Coconut milk
Strain(s): 144 

Kaewpintong, K., Shotipruk, A., Powtongsook, S., Pavasant, P. 2007 Photoautotrophic high-density cultivation of vegetative cells of Haematococcus pluvialis in airlift bioreactor. Biores. Technol., 98, 288-295.
Keywords: Airlift bioreactors; Astaxanthin; Autotrophic; Bioprocess design; Bubble columns; Microalgae
Strain(s): 144 

Katsuda, T., Shimahara, K., Shiraishi, H., Yamagami, K., Ranjbar, R., Katoh, S. 2006 Effect of flashing light from blue light emitting diodes on cell growth and astaxanthin production of Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 102, 442-446.
Keywords: flashing light; blue light emitting diode; astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis
Strain(s): 144 

Yamamoto, H., Hada, K., Yamaji, H., Katsuda, T., Ohno, H., Fukuda, H. 2006 Application of regularized alternating least squares and independent component analysis to HPLC-DAD data of Haematococcus pluvialis metabolites. Biochem. Eng. J., 32, 149-156.
Keywords: metabolomics; chemometrics; HPLC-DAD; alternating least squares; regularized term; independent component analysis
Strain(s): 144 

Yoshimura, S., Ranjbar, R., Inoue, R., Katsuda, T., Katoh, S. 2006 Effective utilization of transmitted light for astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 102, 97-101.
Keywords: astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; transmitted light; physiological response
Strain(s): 144 

Lababpour, A., Shimahara, K., Hada, K., Kyoui, Y., Katsuda, T., Katoh, S. 2005 Fed-batch culture under illumination with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 100, 339-342.
Keywords: astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; fed-batch culture; blue light emitting diode (LED)
Strain(s): 144 
PubMed: 16243287
DOI: 10.1263/jbb.100.339

Kang, C. D., Lee, J. S., Park, T. H., Sim, S. J. 2005 Comparison of heterotrophic and photoautotrophic induction on astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 68, 237-241.
Strain(s): 144 

Katsuda, T., Lababpour, A., Shimahara, K., Katoh, S. 2004 Astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis under illumination with LEDs. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 35, 81-86.
Keywords: astaxanthin; light emitting diode; wavelength; accumulation of astaxanthin
Strain(s): 144 

Lababpour, A., Hada, K., Shimahara, K., Katsuda, T., Katoh, S. 2004 Effects of nutrient supply methods and illumination with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) on astaxanthin production by Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 98, 452-456.
Keywords: astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; blue light emitting diode (LED); nutrient supply
Strain(s): 144 
PubMed: 16233735
DOI: 10.1016/S1389-1723(05)00311-7

Domínguez-Bocanegra, A. R., Legarreta, I. G., Jeronimo, F. M. 2004 Influence of environmental and nutritional factors in the production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Biores. Technol., 92, 209-214.
Keywords: Haematococcus; Astaxanthin production; Light intensity; Aeration
Strain(s): 144 

Steinbrenner, J., Linden, H. 2003 Light induction of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis: regulation by photosynthetic redox control. Plant Mol. Biol., 52, 343-356.
Keywords: astaxanthin; carotenoid biosynthesis; green algae; Haematococcus pluvialis; lycopene βcyclase; redox regulation
Strain(s): 144 

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 19212223242526272829303132333435363738394041444546505152535455565758596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123124125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147148150151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194195197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268271287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310311312313329334336337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Nozaki, H., Onishi, K., Morita, E. 2002 Differences in pyrenoid morphology are correlated with differences in the rbcL genes of members of the Chloromonas lineage (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae). J. Mol. Evol., 55, 414-430.
Keywords: ATP synthase β-subunit (atpB) gene; Chloromonas; gene evolution; large subunit of Rubisco (rbcL) gene; morphological evolution; P700 chlorophyll a-apoprotein A2 (psaB) gene; pyrenoid; Volvocales
Strain(s): 96123144213418421425428432439446447456474522564566567569571574582653732851858861875882883968 

Steinbrenner, J., Linden, H. 2001 Regulation of two carotenoid biosynthesis genes coding for phytoene synthase and carotenoid hydroxylase during stress-induced astaxanthin formation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Plant Physiol., 125, 810-817.
Strain(s): 144 
DOI: 10.1104/pp.125.2.810

Hata, N., Ogbonna, J. C., Hasegawa, Y., Taroda, H., Tanaka, H. 2001 Production of astaxanthin by Haematococcus pluvialis in a sequential heterotrophic-photoautotrophic culture. J. Appl. Phycol., 13, 395-402.
Keywords: astaxanthin; carotenoids; Haematococcus pluvialis; heterotrophic; photoautotrophic; two phase culture
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M. 2000 In vivo antioxidant role of astaxanthin under oxidative stress in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Appl. Microbilo. Biotechnol., 54, 550-555.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Okada, T. 2000 Protective role of astaxanthin against u.v.-B irradiation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnol. Lett., 22, 177-181.
Keywords: antioxidant; astaxanthom; Haematococcus pluvialis oxidative stress; u.v.-B;
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Todoroki, Y., Hirai, N., Kurimura, Y., Ohigashi, H., Tsuji, Y. 1998 Biological activities of abscisic acid analogs in the morphological change of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 85, 529-531.
Keywords: abscisic acid; astaxanthin; carotenogenesis; drought stress; encystment; plant hormone; Haematococcus pluvialis
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Hirai, N., Kurimura, Y., Ohigashi, H., Tsuji, Y. 1997 Abscisic acid-dependent algal morphogenesis in the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Plant Growth Regulation, 22, 79-85.
Keywords: abscisic acid; active oxygen; carotenoid; cyst formation; drought stress; Haematococcus pluvialis
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., Nishio, N., Nagai, S., Kurimura, Y., Tsuji, Y. 1997 Antioxidant role of astaxanthin in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 48, 351-356.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kurimura, Y., Kakizono, T., Nishio, N., Tsuji, Y. 1997 Morphological changes in the life cycle of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 84, 94-97.
Keywords: astaxanthin; encystment; germination; Haematococcus pluvialis; life cycle; maturation
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kurimura, Y., Sakamoto, Y., Tsuji, Y. 1997 Selective extraction of astaxanthin and chlorophyll from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnol. Tech., 11, 657-660.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kurimura, Y., Tsuji, Y. 1997 Light-independent, astaxanthin production by the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis under salt stress. Biotechnol. Lett., 19, 507-509.
Strain(s): 144 

Chumpolkulwong, N., Kakizono, T., Ishii, H. 1997 Enzymatic conversion of b-carotene to astaxanthin by cell-extracts of a green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnol. Lett., 19, 443-446.
Strain(s): 144 

Kajiwara, S., Kakizono, T., Saito, T., Kondo, K., Ohtani, T., Nishio, N., Nagai, S., Misawa, N. 1995 Isolation and functional identification of a novel cDNA for astaxanthin biosynthesis from Haematococcus pluvialis, and astaxanthin synthesis in Escherichia coli. Plant Mol. Biol., 29, 343-352.
Keywords: astaxanthin; canthaxanthin; carotenoid; xanthophyll; Haematococcus pluvialis; green alga
Strain(s): 144 

Tjahjono, A. E., Hayama, Y., Kakizono, T., Terada, Y., Nishio, N., Nagai, S. 1994 Hyper-accumulation of astaxanthin in a green alga Haematococcus pluvialis at elevated temperatures. Biotechnol. Lett., 16, 133-138.
Strain(s): 144 

Tjahjono, A. E., Kakizono, T., Hayama, Y., Nishio, N., Nagai S. 1994 Isolation of resistant mutants against carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors for a green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and their hybrid formation by protoplast fusion for breeding of higher astaxanthin producers. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 77, 352-357.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., Nagai, S. 1993 Enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis by oxidative stress in acetate-induced cyst cells of a green unicellular alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 59, 867-873.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., Nagai, S. 1993 Photo-dependent astaxanthin biosynthesis in a green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. Seibutsu-Kôgaku, 71, 233-237 (in Japanese with English summary).
Strain(s): 144 

Tjahjono, A. E., Kakizono, T., Hayama, Y., Nagai, S. 1993 Formation and regeneration of protoplast from a unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 75, 196-200.
Strain(s): 144 

Kakizono, T., Kobayashi, M., Nagai, S. 1992 Effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio on encystment accompanied with astaxanthin formation in a green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 74, 403-405.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., Nishio, N., Nagai, S. 1992 Effects of light intensity, light quality, and illumination cycle on astaxanthin formation in a green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 74, 61-63.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., Yamaguchi, K., Nishio, N., Nagai, S. 1992 Growth and asta-xanthin formation of Haematococcus pluvialis in heterotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 74, 17-20.
Strain(s): 144 

Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., Nagai, S. 1991 Astaxanthin production by a green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis accompanied with morphological changes in acetate media. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 71, 335-339.
Strain(s): 144 

Watanabe, M. M., Kasai, F., Hiwatari, T., Suda, S., Nei, T. 1984 Cryopreservation of microalgae in liquid nitrogen - Survival of algal cultures after freezing. Jpn. J. Freez. Dry., 30, 23-26 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 1819212426293139404144454650737475767780818788899091939598991001011201221311351371441512042072132572633794152219223522392579 

Ichimura, T., Itoh, T. 1977 17. Preservation methods of microalgae (I) [17. Bisaisôrui no hozonhô (I)]. In Preservation methods of microorganisms [Biseibutsu Hozonhô], Ed. by Nei, T., University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, p. 355-373 (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 19212223242728303132333436373839404144454647484950122123127131144152173175179180181182183185198200203206217226227241266267268271295309310334338379436448450455527 

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