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Strain number NIES-48  
Phylum Euglenozoa  
Class Euglenophyceae  
Scientific name Euglena gracilis Klebs  
Synonym -----  
Former name  
Common name  
Locality (Date of collection) (-----)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source)  
History < IAM (1983);  
Isolator (Date of isolation) (-----)  
Identified by -----  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2013 Jan]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  HUT (semi-solid)  
Temperature:  20 (25) C
Light intensity:  2 (15-19) µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  1 M (14 D)  
Gene information OPRT-OMPDC ( AB185845 ) , PAC1 ( AB126955 ) , PAC2 ( AB126956 ) , DHOD ( AB120414 )  
Cell size (min - max) - 42 μm  
Organization Unicellular; Flagellate 
Characteristics Material for Vitamin B12 bioassay  
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM E-6; UTEX 753
Other strain no. : Z strain  
Remarks  
Movie https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3PE0-nt8BSQ  
Reference
Shibakami, M., Sohma, M. 2017 Synthesis and thermal properties of paramylon mixed esters and optical, mechanical, and crystal properties of their hot-pressed films. Carbohydr. Polym., 155, 416-424.
Keywords: Paramylon; β-1,3-glucan; Thermoplastic; Acylation; Euglena
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.08.093

Shimakawa, G., Matsuda, Y., Nakajima, K., Tamoi, M., Shigeoka, S., Miyake, C. 2017 Diverse strategies of O2 usage for preventing photo-oxidative damage under CO2 limitation during algal photosynthesis. Sci Rep., 7, 41022 (article ID).
Strain(s): 48 
PubMed: 28106164
DOI: 10.1038/srep41022

Guo, B., Lei, C., Ito, T., Yaxiaer, Y., Kobayashi, H., Jiang, Y., Tanaka, Y., Ozeki, Y., Goda, K. 2017 High-throughput label-free screening of Euglena gracilis with optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy. Proc. of SPIE, 10076
Keywords: high-throughput screening; biofuel; Euglena gracilis; global warming; microfluidics; optofluidics; single-cell analysis; quantitative phase microscopy
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1117/12.2251157

Aida, T. M., Nonaka, T., Fukuda, S., Kujiraoka, H., Kumagai, Y., Maruta, R., Ota, M., Suzuki, I., Watanabe, M. M., Inomata, H., Smith Jr., R. L. 2016 Nutrient recovery from municipal sludge for microalgae cultivation with two-step hydrothermal liquefaction. Algal Research, 18, 61-68.
Keywords: Biosolid treatment process; High temperature water; Internal recycle; Wastewater treatment; Microalgae cultivation
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.06.009

Park, J-W., Kim, S. H., Ito, T.,Fujii, T., Kim, S. Y., Laurell, T., Lee, S. W., Goda, K. 2016 Acoustofluidic harvesting of microalgae on a single chip. Biomicrofluidics, 10, 034119 (article ID).
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1063/1.4954744

Wakisaka, Y., Suzuki, Y., Iwata, O., Nakashima, A., Ito, T., Hirose, M., Domon, R., Sugawara, M., Tsumura, N., Watarai, H., Shimobaba, T., Suzuki, K., Goda, K., Ozeki, Y. 2016 Probing the metabolic heterogeneity of live Euglena gracilis with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. Nature Microbiology, 1, 16124 (article ID).
Strain(s): 48 
PubMed: 27670110
DOI: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.124

Guo, B., Lei, C., Ito, T., Jiang, Y., Ozeki, Y., Goda, K. 2016 High-throughput accurate single-cell screening of Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy. PLoS One, 11, e0166214 (article ID).
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166214

Tomita, Y., Yoshioka, K., Iijima, H., Nakashima, A., Iwata, O., Suzuki, K., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A., Yokota-Hirai, M., Osanai, T. 2016 Succinate and lactate production from Euglena gracilis during dark, anaerobic conditions. Front. Microbiol., ,
Keywords: biorefinery; Euglena; lactate; microalgae; succinate
Strain(s): 48 

Suzuki, K., Mitra, S., Iwata, O., Ishikawa, T., Kato, S., Yamada, K. 2015 Selection and characterization of Euglena anabaena var. minor as a new candidate Euglena species for industrial application. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 79, 1730-1736.
Keywords: Euglena anabaena var. minor; Euglena gracilis; paramylon
Strain(s): 483745 
DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2015.1045828

Ogawa, T., Tamoi, M., Kimura, A., Mine, A., Sakuyama, H., Yoshida, E., Maruta, T., Suzuki, K., Ishikawa, T., Shigeoka, S. 2015 Enhancement of photosynthetic capacity in Euglena gracilis by expression of cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase leads to increases in biomass and wax ester production. Biotechnol. Biofuels, 8, 80 (article ID).
Keywords: Euglena gracilis; Biofuel; Wax ester; Paramylon; Biomass; fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase; Photosynthesis
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1186/s13068-015-0264-5

Maruyama, S., Misawa, K., Iseki, M., Watanabe, M., Nozaki, H. 2008 Origins of a cyanobacterial 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in plastid-lacking eukaryotes. BMC Evol. Biol., 8, 151 (article ID).
Strain(s): 48 

Makiuchi, T., Nara, T., Annoura, T., Hashimoto, T., Aoki, T. 2007 Occurrence of multiple, independent gene fusion events for the fifth and sixth enzymes of pyrimidine biosynthesis in different eukaryotic groups. Gene, 394(1-2), 78-86.
Keywords: gene fusion; de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis; lateral gene transfer; evolutionary marker
Strain(s): 48 

Yoshikawa, S., Suzuki, T., Watanabe, M., Iseki, M. 2005 Kinetic analysis of the activation of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), a blue-light receptor for photomovements of Euglena. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 4, 727-731.
Strain(s): 48 

Annoura, T., Nara, T., Makiuchi, T., Hashimoto, T., Aoki, T. 2005 The origin of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase genes of kinetoplastids, with special reference to their biological significance and adaptation to anaerobic, parasitic conditions. J. Mol. Evol., 60, 113-127.
Keywords: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; Trypanosoma cruzi Bodonid; Kinetoplastid; Euglenozoa; Phylogenetic tree; Gene fusion; Horizontal gene transfer; Anaerobiosis
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1007/s00239-004-0078-8

Koumura, Y., Suzuki, T., Yoshikawa, S., Watanabe, M., Iseki, M. 2004 The origin of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), the Euglena blue-light receptor: phylogenetic analysis of orthologues of PAC subunits from several euglenoids and trypanosome-type adenylyl cyclases from Euglena gracilis. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 3, 580-586.
Strain(s): 48381 

Lu, J., Takeuchi, T., Satoh, H. 2004 Ingestion and assimilation of three species of freshwater algae by larval tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, 238, 437-449.
Keywords: carbon assimilation; closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system (CERAS); Chlorella; 14C labeling; Euglena; ingestion; Oreochromis niloticus; Spirulina
Strain(s): 3948641 

Iseki, M., Matsunaga, S., Murakami, A., Ohno, K., Shiga, K., Yoshida, K., Sugai, M., Takahashi, T., Hori, T., Watanabe, M. 2002 A blue-light-activated adenylyl cyclase mediates photoavoidance in Euglena gracilis. Nature, 415, 1047-1051.
Strain(s): 48 
PubMed: 11875575
DOI: 10.1038/4151047a

Matsunaga, S., Takahashi, T., Watanabe, M., Sugai, M., Hori, T. 1999 Control by ammonium ion of the change from step-up to step-down photophobically responding cells in the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis. Plant Cell Physiol., 40, 213-221.
Keywords: ammonium ion; blue light; Euglena; greening; photophobic responses
Strain(s): 48 

Matsunaga, S., Hori, T., Takahashi, T., Kubota, M., Watanabe, M., Okamoto, K., Masuda, K., Sugai, M. 1998 Discovery of signaling effect of UV-B/C light in the extended UV-A/blue-type action spectra for step-down and step-up photo-phobic responses in the unicellular flagellate alga Euglena gracilis. Protoplasma, 201, 45-52.
Keywords: action spectra; blue light; Euglena; photophobic responses; ultraviolet light
Strain(s): 48 

Yuki-jirushi [Snow Brand] Milk Products Co.Ltd., Showa Denko K.K. 1992 Separation and purification of useful substances from Euglena [Euglena kara no yûyô-busshitsu no Bunri Seisei]. In The Advanced Technology of the Separation and Purification of the Materials for Physiologically Functional Foods and Their Development [Kinôsei Shokuhin Sozai no Kôdo Bunri Seisei to Kaihatsu], Ed. and published by The Japanese Research and Development Association for the High Separation System in Food Industry [Shokuhin Sangyô Hai-separêshon Sisutemu Gijutu Kenkyû Kumiai], Tokyo, p. 363-382 (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 48 

Toda, H., Yazawa, M., Yagi, K. 1992 Amino acid sequence of calmodulin from Euglena gracilis. Eur. J. Biochem., 205, 653-660.
Strain(s): 48 

Iwata, H., Haji, A., Hashimoto, K., Mitsuyanagi, K., Kanegae, Y. 1991 Methods for producing heat-unsoluble β-1,3-glucan [Kanetsu gyôkosei β-1,3-glucan no seizôhô]. In Nippon-koku Tokkyo-chô (JP), Kôkai Tokkyo Kôhô (A), Hei3-163102, 5 pp. (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 474849 

Nakajima, T., Takahashi, M. 1991 A photo-bioreactor using algal phototaxis for solids-liquid separation. Wat. Res., 25, 1243-1247.
Keywords: wastewater treatment; microalgae; Euglena gracilis; phototaxis; solids-liquid separation; bioreactor; photo-clarifier
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Yokota, A., Sumida, S., Hase, E. 1990 Immunogold localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase with reference to pyrenoid morphology in chloroplasts of synchronized Euglena gracilis cells. Plant Physiol., 92, 802-808.
Strain(s): 48 
DOI: 10.1104/pp.92.3.802

Osafune, T., Ehara, T., Ito, A., Hase, E. 1990 Incorporation of cytoplasmic structures by developing proplastids in dark-grown Euglena gracilis cells transferred to an inorganic medium in darkness. J. Electr. Microsc., 39, 168-171.
Keywords: Euglena gracilis; dark proplastid development; incorporation; cytoplasmic structure
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Sumida, S., Ehara, T., Kodama, M., Hase, E. 1990 Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for the occurrence of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in "propyrenoids" of Euglena gracilis. J. Electr. Microsc., 39, 101-104.
Keywords: chloroplast development; Euglena; propyrenoid; ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; immunocytochemistry
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Schiff. J. A., Hase, E. 1990 Immunogold localization of LHCP II apoprotein in the Golgi of Euglena. Cell Struct. Funct., 15, 99-105.
Keywords: Euglena; Golgi apparatus; immunogold localization; LHCP II
Strain(s): 48 

Tsuzuki, M., Ohnuma, E., Sato, N., Takaku, T., Kawaguchi, A. 1990 Effects of CO2 concentration during growth on fatty acid composition in microalgae. Plant Physiol., 93, 851-856.
Strain(s): 482093213821602235 

Osafune, T., Ehara, T., Tahara, M., Hase, E. 1990 Effects of blue and red light on chloroplast development in dark-grown wax-rich cells of Euglena gracilis transferred to inorganic medium. J. Electr. Microsc., 39, 254-259.
Keywords: Euglena gracilis; blue and red light; chloroplast development
Strain(s): 48 

Ehara, T., Osafune, T., Hase, E. 1990 Interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles during the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis in synchronized cultures. Exp. Cell Res., 190, 104-112.
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Sumida, S., Ehara, T., Hase, E. 1989 Three-dimensional distribution of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in chloroplasts of actively photosynthesizing cell of Euglena gracilis. J. Electr. Microsc., 38, 399-402.
Keywords: Euglena gracilis Z; immunoelectron microscopy; chloroplast; RuBisCO; three-dimensional distribution
Strain(s): 48 

Maruyama, I., Ando, Y., Maeda, T., Hirayama, K. 1989 Uptake of vitamin B12 by various strains of unicellular algae Chlorella. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 55, 1785-1790.
Strain(s): 48226687215721692175 

Ehara, T., Sumida, S., Osafune, T. 1988 Dynamic morphological changes of organelles in Euglena gracilis Z. J. Tokyo Med. Coll., 46, 420-431.
Strain(s): 48 

Suzuki, E., Tsuzuki, M., Miyachi, S. 1987 Photosynthetic characteristics of chloroplasts isolated from Euglena gracilis Z grown photoautotrophically. Plant Cell Physiol., 28, 1377-1388.
Keywords: carbon dioxide concentration; Euglena gracilis Z; isolated chloroplast; photoautotrophic growth; photosynthetic carbon fixation
Strain(s): 48 

Yokota, A., Kitaoka, S. 1987 The mechanism of induction of glycolate excretion by aminooxyacetate in low CO2-grown Euglena gracilis Z. Agric. Biol. Chem., 51, 665-670.
Strain(s): 48 

Yokota, A., Kitaoka, S. 1987 Rates of glycolate synthesis and metabolism during photosynthesis of Euglena and microalgae grown on low CO2. Planta, 170, 181-189.
Keywords: aminooxyacetate; Chlorophyta (microalgae); CO2-concentrating mechanism; cyanobacteria; Euglena; glycolate excretion; photosynthesis (CO2-concentrating mechanism)
Strain(s): 48 

Suzuki, E., Tsuzuki, M., Miyachi, S. 1986 Accumlation of inorganic carbon in the cells of Euglena gracilis Z grown photoautotrophically in ordinary air. Plant Cell Physiol., 27, 1205-1208.
Keywords: Euglena gracilis Z; intracellular inorganic carbon accumulation; photosynthesis
Strain(s): 48 

Tsukada, S., Ehara, T., Sumida, S., Osafune, T., Hase, E. 1986 Behaviour of proplastids and their nucleoids in dark-organotrophically grown cells of Euglena gracilis transferred to an inorganic medium. Br. Phycol. J., 21, 155-163.
Strain(s): 48 

Yokota, A., Kitaoka, S. 1986 A method for determination of glyoxylate with pumpkin isocitrate lyase and its application to photosynthesizing Euglena gracilis Z. Plant Sci., 46, 97-101.
Keywords: determination of glyoxylate; pumpkin isocitrate lyase; Euglena gracilis
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Ehara, T., Sumida, S., Hase, E. 1985 Interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles durihg the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis in synchronized cultures. II. Associations between the nucleus and chloroplasts at an early stage of the cell cycle under photoautotrophic conditions. Plant Cell Physiol., 26, 263-270.
Keywords: cell cycle; chloroplast nucleoid; chloroplast-nucleus connection; chromosome; Euglena gracilis
Strain(s): 48 

Ehara, T., Osafune, T., Hase, E. 1985 Interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles durihg the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis in synchronized cultures. III. Associations between the nucleus and chloroplasts at an early stage of the cell cycle under photoorganotrophic conditions (part II). Plant Cell Physiol., 26, 1155-1165.
Keywords: cell cycle; chloroplast-nucleus association; chloroplast-nucleoid; Euglena gracilis; three-dimensional chloroplast model
Strain(s): 48 

Ehara, T., Sumida, S., Osafune, T., Hase, E. 1984 Interactions between the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles during the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis in cynchronized culture. I. Associations between the nucleus and chloroplasts at an early stage in the cell cycle under photoorganotrophic conditions (Part I). Plant Cell Physiol., 25, 1133-1146.
Keywords: cell cycle; chloroplast-nucleus association; chloroplast-nucleoid; chromosome; Euglena gracilis
Strain(s): 48 

Hashimoto, H., Murakami, S. 1983 Effects of cycloheximide and chloramphenicol on chloroplast replication in synchronously dividing cultured cells of Euglena gracilis. New Phytol., 94, 521-529.
Strain(s): 48 

Hashimoto, H., Murakami, S. 1982 Changes in morphology and ultrastructure of chloroplast along its division cycle in Euglena gracilis cultured synchronously under photoautotrophic condition. Scientific Papers of the College of General Education, Univ. of Tokyo, 32, 55-64.
Strain(s): 48 

Hashimoto, H., Murakami, S. 1982 Chloroplast replication and loss of chloroplast DNA induced by nalidixic acid in Euglena gracilis. Cell Struct. Funct., 7, 111-120.
Strain(s): 48 

Ichimura, T., Itoh, T. 1977 17. Preservation methods of microalgae (I) [17. Bisaisôrui no hozonhô (I)]. In Preservation methods of microorganisms [Biseibutsu Hozonhô], Ed. by Nei, T., University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, p. 355-373 (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 19212223242728303132333436373839404144454647484950122123127131144152173175179180181182183185198200203206217226227241266267268271295309310334338379436448450455527 

Shihira-Ishikawa, I., Osafune, T., Ehara, T., Ohkuro, I., Hase, E. 1977 An early light-independent phase of chloroplast development in dark-grown cells of Euglena gracilis Z. I. Dependence of the plastid development on previous culture conditions. Plant Cell Physiol., Spec. Iss. (Photosynthetic Organelles), 445-454.
Strain(s): 48 

Ehara, T., Shihira-Ishikawa, I., Osafune, T., Hase, E., Ohkuro, I. 1975 Some structural characteristics of chloroplast degeneration in cells of Euglena gracilis Z during their heterotrophic growth in darkness. J. Electron Microscopy, 24, 253-261.
Strain(s): 48 

Ikushima, T. 1975 Action of furylfuramide (AF-2) on chloroplasts of Euglena gracilis. Annu. Rep. Res. Reactor Inst. Kyoto Univ., 8, 83-85.
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Mihara, S., Hase, E., Ohkuro, I. 1975 Formation and division of giant mitochondria during the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis Z in synchronous culture. I. Some characteristics of changes in the morphology of mitochondria and oxygen-uptake activity of cells. Plant Cell Physiol., 16, 313-326.
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Mihara, S., Hase, E., Ohkuro, I. 1975 Formation and division of giant mitochondria during the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis Z in synchronous culture. II. Modes of division of giant mitochondria. J. Electron Microscopy, 24, 33-39.
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T., Mihara, S., Hase, E., Ohkuro, I. 1975 Formation and division of giant mitochondria during the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis Z in synchronous culture. III. Three-dimensional structures of mitochondria after division of giant forms. J. Electron Microscopy, 24, 283-286.
Strain(s): 48 

Tsubo, Y. 1975 Formation of colorless cells in algae. In Advance of Phycology in Japan, Eds. by Tokida, J. & Hirose, H., VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, p. 180-193.
Strain(s): 48 

Osafune, T. 1973 Three-dimensional structures of giant mitochondria, dictyosomes and “concentric lamellar bodies” formed during the cell cycle of Euglena gracilis (Z) in synchronous culture. J. Electron Microscopy, 22, 51-61.
Strain(s): 48 

Tsubo, Y., Ueda, T., Yokomura, E. 1971 Chloroplast autonomy revealed by nutritionally controlled Euglena gracilis. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Seaweed Symposium, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, p. 336-338.
Strain(s): 48 

Miyoshi, Y., Tsubo, Y. 1969 Permanent bleaching of Euglena by chloramphenicol. Plant Cell Physiol., 10, 221-225.
Strain(s): 48 

Murano, F., Fujita, Y. 1967 Comparative studies of photochemical oxidation-reduction reactions in lamellar fragments of various algae and spinach. Plant Cell Physiol., 8, 673-682.
Strain(s): 19213748 

Tamiya, H. 1963 Cell differentiation in Chlorella. In Cell Differentiation: Symposium of the Society for Experimental Biology, XVII, 188-214.
Strain(s): 482170 

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