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Strain number NIES-39  
Phylum Cyanophyta  
Class Cyanophyceae  
Scientific name Arthrospira platensis Gomont  
Synonym Oscillatoria platensis (Gomont) Bourrelly 1970  
Former name Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler  
Common name Blue-green alga ; Cyanobacteria  
Locality (Date of collection) Lake Chad, Chad (-----)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Salt water  
History < IAM (1983);  
Isolator (Date of isolation) (-----)  
Identified by -----  
State of strain Subculture; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2013 Jan.]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  SOT  
Temperature:  20 (25) C
Light intensity:  1 (12-15) µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  4 M (14 D)  
Gene information Whole-genome ( AP011615 ) , 16S rRNA ( AB074508 DQ393279 ) , cpcB, cpcA ( DQ393287 ) , crtB ( AB001284 ) , cyaA ( D49530 ) , cyaG ( D49531 ) , cyaC ( D49692 ) , groEL ( AB039632 ) , gyrB ( AB074765 ) , petH ( AB113346 ) , MS ( AB548759 ) , mth ( AB282753 ) , recA ( U33924 ) , rpoC1 ( AB074788 ) , rpoD1 ( AB074815 )  
Cell size (min - max) 6 - 7 μm  
Organization Filamentous 
Characteristics Autotrophic ; Genome decoded strain (Fujisawa, T. et al. 2010) ; Hydrogen evolution ; Contains good quality of proteins  
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM M-135 (=M-222)
Motwalli, O., Essack, M., Jankovic, BR., Ji, B., Liu, X., Ansari, HR., Hoehndorf, R., Gao, X., Arold, ST., Mineta, K., Archer, JA., Gojobori, T., Mijakovic, I., Bajic, VB. 2017 In silico screening for candidate chassis strains of free fatty acid-producing cyanobacteria. BMC Genomics, 18, 33 (article ID).
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Free fatty acids; Biofuel; Screening method; Cell factories; Bioinformatics; Optimization; Computer science
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 2805677
DOI: 10.1186/s12864-016-3389-4

Tadama, S., Shiraishi, H. 2017 Growth of the edible microalga Arthrospira platensis in relation to boron supply. International Journal of GEOMATE, 12, 90-95.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Spirulina; Arthrospira platensis; Boron, H-resorcinol
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.21660/2017.30.2580

Reichert,M., Bergmann,S. M., Hwang, J., Buchholz, R., Lindenberger, C. 2017 Antiviral activity of exopolysaccharides from Arthrospira platensis against koi herpesvirus. J. Fish Dis.,
Keywords: antiviral substances; exopolysaccharides; KHVD; koi herpesvirus
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 28422294
DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12618

Kishi, M., Toda, T. 2017 Carbon fixation properties of three alkalihalophilic microalgal strains under high alkalinity. J. Appl. Phycol.,
Keywords: Algae; Cyanobacteria; Carbon dioxide; Alkalinity; Growth optimization
Strain(s): 392257 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-017-1226-z

Kerfeld, CA., Melnicki, MR., Sutter M., Dominguez-Martin, MA. 2017 Structure, function and evolution of the cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein and its homologs. New Phytol., 215, 937-951.
Keywords: carotenoids; carotenoproteins; cyanobacteria; nonphotochemical quenching; photoprotection; phylogenomics; protein structure; singlet oxygen (1O2) quenching
Strain(s): 3981843 
PubMed: 28675536
DOI: 10.1111/nph.14670

Silas, S., Makarova, KS., Shmakov, S., Páez-Espino, D., Mohr, G., Liu, Y., Davison, M., Roux, S.9, Krishnamurthy, SR., Fu, BXH., Hansen, LL., Wang, D., Sullivan, MB., Millard, A., Clokie, MR., Bhaya, D., Lambowitz, AM., Kyrpides, NC., Koonin, EV., Fire, AZ. 2017 On the origin of reverse transcriptaseUsing CRISPR-Cas systems and their hyperdiverse, enigmatic spacer repertoires. mBio, 8, e00897-17 (article ID).
Keywords: CRISPR; RNA spacer acquisition; cyanobacteria; deep sequencing; horizontal gene transfer; host-parasite relationship; phylogeny; reverse transcriptase
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 28698278
DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00897-17

Nogami, R., Nishida, H., Hong, D. D., Wakisaka, M. 2016 Growth promotion of Spirulina by steelmaking slag: application of solubility diagram to understand its mechanism. AMB Express, 6, 96 (article ID).
Keywords: Steelmaking slag; Growth promotion; Spirulina; Solubility diagram; Oxidative stress
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 27730571
DOI: 10.1186/s13568-016-0270-4

Shiraishi, H. 2016 Cryopreservation of the edible alkalophilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 80, 2051-2057.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; dietary supplements; spirulina; Arthrospira platensis; cryopreservation
Strain(s): 39462308 
DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2016.1189320

Andemichael, H., Lee, J. W. 2016 Toxicological study of biofuel ethanol with blue green alga Spirulina platensis. Algal Research, 18, 110-115.
Keywords: Spirulina platensis; Biofuel ethanol; Cyanobacteria; Ethanol tolerance bioassay; Biofuel ethanol toxicological effect
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.05.032

Misumi, M., Katoh, H., Tomo, T., Sonoike, K. 2016 Relationship between photochemical quenching and non-photochemical quenching in six species of cyanobacteria reveals species difference in redox state and species commonality in energy dissipation. Plant Cell, 57, 1510-1517.
Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements; Cyanobacteria; Photochemical quenching; Respiration; State transition; Thermal dissipation
Strain(s): 39 
PubMed: 26712847
DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcv185

Toyoshima, M., Aikawa, S., Yamagishi, T., Kondo, A., Kawai, H. 2015 A pilot-scale floating closed culture system for the multicellular cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis NIES-39. J. Appl. Phycol., 27, 2191-2202.
Keywords: Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39; Biomass productivity; Floating closed culture system; Modified seawater medium; Outdoor sulture
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-014-0484-2

Shiraishi, H. 2015 Association of heterotrophic bacteria with aggregated Arthrospira platensis exopolysaccharides: implications in the induction of axenic cultures. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 79, 331-341.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Arthrospira platensis; exopolysaccharides; axenic cultures; Alcian blue
Strain(s): 3946 
DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2014.972333

Yoshikawa, K., Aikawa, S., Kojima, Y., Toya, Y., Furusawa, C., Kondo, A., Shimizu, H. 2015 Construction of a genome-scale metabolic model of Arthrospira platensis NIES-39 and metabolic design for cyanobacterial bioproduction. PLoS One, 10, e0144430 (article ID).
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144430

Aikawa, S., Ho, S-H., Nakanishi, A., Chang, J-S., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. 2015 Improving polyglucan production in cyanobacteria and microalgae via cultivation design and metabolic engineering. Biotechnol. J., 10, 886-898.
Keywords: Bioethanol; Cyanobacteria; Metabolic engineering; Microalgae; Polyglucan
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400344

Kamata, K., Piao, Z., Suzuki, S., Fujimori, T., Tajiri, W., Nagai, K., Iyoda, T., Yamada, A., Hayakawa, T., Ishiwara, M., Horaguchi, S., Belay, A., Tanaka, T., Takano, K., Hangyo M. 2014 Spirulina-templated metal microcoils with controlled helical structures for THz electromagnetic responses. Sci Rep, 4, 4919 (article ID).
Strain(s): 3946 
DOI: 10.1038/srep04919

Shiraishi, H., Tabuse, Y. 2013 The AplI restriction-modification system in an edible cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39, recognizes the nucleotid sequence 5'-CTGCAG-3'. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 77, 782-788.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Spirulina; restriction enzyme; DNA methyltransferase; edible cyanobacteria
Strain(s): 39 

Izumi, Y., Aikawa, S., Matsuda, F., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. 2013 Aqueous size-exclusion chromatographic method for the quantification of cyanobacterial native glycogen. J. Chromatogr. B, 930, 90-97.
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography; Native glycogen; Qantitative analysis; Polyhydroxy methacrylate; Microalgae; Arthrospira platensis
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.04.037

Hasunuma, T., Kikuyama, F., Matsuda, M., Aikawa, S., Izumi, Y., Kondo, A. 2013 Dynamic metabolic profiling of cyanobacterial glycogen biosynthesis under conditions of nitrate depletion. J. Exp. Bot., 64, 2943-2954.
Keywords: 13C; cyanobacteria; glycogen; in vivo labelling; metabolic turnover; metabolomics
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ert134

Aikawa, S., Joseph, A., Yamada, R., Izumi, Y., Yamagishi, T., Matsuda, F., Kawai, H., Chang, J.-S., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. 2013 Direct conversion of Spirulina to ethanol without pretreatment or enzymatic hydrolysis processes. Energ. Environ. Sci., 6, 1844-1849.
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1039/C3EE40305J

Miklaszewska, M., Waleron, M., Morin, N., Calusinska, M., Wilmotte, A., De Marsac, NT., Rippka, R., Waleron, K. 2012 Elucidation of the gas vesicle gene clusters in cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Oscillatoriales, Cyanophyta) and correlation with ITS phylogeny. Eur. J. Phycol., 47, 233-244.
Keywords: Arthrospira; cyanobacteria; gas vacuoles; gas vesicles; gvpA; gvpC; gvpN; internal transcribed spacer (ITS)
Strain(s): 39 

Choi, G-G., Ahn, C-Y., Oh, H-M. 2012 Phylogenetic relationships of Arthrospira strains inferred from 16S rRNA gene and cpcBA-IGS sequences. Algae, 27, 75-82.
Keywords: Arthrospira (Spirulina); cpcBA-IGS; phylogenetic analysis; 16S rRNA gene
Strain(s): 3946 

Aikawa, S., Izumi, Y., Matsuda, F., Hasunuma, T., Chang, J.-S., Kondo, A. 2012 Synergistic enhancement of glycogen production in Arthrospira platensis by optimization of light intensity and nitrate supply. Biores. Technol., 108, 211-215.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; Glycogen; Cyanobacteria; Light intensity; Nitrogen starvation
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.004

Yoshikawa, T., Ikeda, Y., Sakata, T., Maeda, H. 2011 Cloning and analysis of the ggpS gene from cyanobacteria Arthrospira spp. involved in the synthesis of an osmolyte glucosylglycerol. Biocontrol Science, 16, 55-61.
Keywords: Arthrospira; ggpS; Glucosylglycerol; Osmolyte; Synechococcus
Strain(s): 39 

Fujisawa, T., Narikawa, R., Okamoto, S., Ehira, S., Yoshimura, H., Suzuki, I., Masuda, T., Mochimaru, M., Takaichi, S., Awai, K., Sekine, M., Horikawa, H., Yashiro, I., Omata, S., Takarada, H., Katano, Y., Kosugi, H., Tanikawa, S., Ohmori, K., Sato, N.,Ikeuchi, M., Fujita, N., Ohmori, M. 2010 Genomic structure of an economically important cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39. DNA Res., 17, 85-103.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; Arthrospira; health supplement; genome; cAMP
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1093/dnares/dsq004

Tanioka, Y., Miyamoto, E., Yabuta, Y., Ohnishi, K., Fujita, T., Yamaji, R., Misono, H., Shigeoka, S., Nakano, Y., Inui, H., Watanabe, F. 2010 Methyladaninylcobamide functions as the cofactor of methionine synthase in a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis NIES-39. FEBS Lett., 584, 3223-3226.
Keywords: adeninylcobamide; cobalamin; cyanobacteria; methionine synthase; pseudovitamine B12; Spirulina platensis
Strain(s): 39 

Kim, C.-J., Jung, Y.-H., Ahn, C.-Y., Lee, Y.-K., Oh, H.-M. 2010 Adsorption of turbid materials by the cyanobacterium Phormidium parchydematicum. J. Appl. Phycol., 22, 181-186.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; Clay; Cyanobacteria; Phormidium parchydematicum; Turbid material
Strain(s): 39 

Lu, J., Satoh, H., Takeuchi, T. 2008 Development of models of threshold and efficient algal densities for larval and juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on raw Spirulina. Aquaculture, 285, 249-254.
Keywords: assimilation; 14C labeling; CERAS (closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system); density; ingestion; Spirulina; Oreochromis niloticus
Strain(s): 39 

Kim, C.-J., Hung, Y.-H., Oh, H.-M, 2007 Factors indicating culture status during cultivation of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. J. Microbiol., 45, 122-127.
Keywords: coil number; culture status; syanobacteria; floating activity; Spirulona platensis
Strain(s): 3946 

Lu, J., Takeuchi, T., Satoh, H. 2006 Ingestion, assimilation and utilization of raw Spirulina by larval tilapia Oreochromis niloticus during larval development. Aquaculture, 254, 686-692.
Keywords: assimilation; 14C labeling; CERAS (closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system); ingestion; Spirulina; Oreochromis niloticus
Strain(s): 39 

Kim, B.-H., Oh, H.-M., Lee, Y.-K., Choi, G.-G., Ahn, C.-y., Yoon, B.-D., Kim, H.-S., 2006 Simple method for RNA preparation from cyanobacteria. J. Phycol., 42, 1137-1141.
Keywords: bead–phenol–chloroform method; cyanobacteria; RNA extraction; xanthogenate–SDS–phenol method
Strain(s): 3339230 

Yukino, T., Hayashi, M., Inoue, Y., Imamura, J., Nagano, N., Murata, H. 2005 Preparation of docosahexaenoic acid fortified Spirulina platensis and its lipid and fatty acid compositions. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 71, 74-79 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; DHA; Spirulina; foods with function claims
Strain(s): 39 

Lu, J., Takeuchi, T. 2004 Spawning and egg quality of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed solely on raw Spirulina throughout three generations. Aquaculture, 234, 625-640.
Keywords: Closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system (CERAS); egg quality; larval quality; Oreochromis niloticus; parent; progeny; reproduction; spawn; Spirulina platensis
Strain(s): 39 

Lu, J., Takeuchi, T., Satoh, H. 2004 Ingestion and assimilation of three species of freshwater algae by larval tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, 238, 437-449.
Keywords: carbon assimilation; closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system (CERAS); Chlorella; 14C labeling; Euglena; ingestion; Oreochromis niloticus; Spirulina
Strain(s): 3948641 

Seo, P-S., Yokota, A. 2003 The phylogenetic relationships of cyanobacteria inferred from 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoC1 and rpoD1 gene sequences. J. Gen. Appl. Micobiol., 49, 191-203.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; gyrB; phylogeny; protein evolution; rpoC1; rpoD1; 16S rDNA
Strain(s): 19212225391042093209521283277 

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 19212223242526272829303132333435363738394041444546505152535455565758596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123124125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147148150151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194195197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268271287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310311312313329334336337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Toyomizu, M., Suzuki, K., Kawata, Y., Kojima, H., Akiba, Y. 2001 Effective transformation of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis using electroporation. J. Appl. Phycol., 13, 209-214.
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; cyanobacterium; blue-green alga; electroporation; feed enzyme; poultry; Spirulina; transformation
Strain(s): 39 

Watanabe, F., Miyamoto, E., Nakano, Y. 2001 Inactive corrinoid-compound significantly decreases in Spirulina platensis grown in a cobalt-deficient medium. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49, 5685-5688.
Keywords: Vitamin B12; pseudovitamin B12; algal health food; spirulina tablet; intrinsic facto
Strain(s): 39 

Lee, K.-Y., Park, J.-H., Park, B.-S. 1996 CO2 fixation and SCP production using blue green algae. Theories and Applications of Chem. Eng. (Korea), 2, 489-492 (in Korean with English title).
Strain(s): 193946 

Sasaki, K., Marquez, F. J., Nishio, N., Nagai, S. 1995 Promotive effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on the growth and photosynthesis of Spirulina platensis. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 79, 453-457.
Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid; Spirulina platensis; phycocyanin; chlorophyll
Strain(s): 39 
DOI: 10.1016/0922-338X(95)91261-3

Miya, A., Adachi, T., Tazawa, R., Suzuki, S., Kanki, R., Toyobe, M., Oguchi, M. 1994 Gas revitalization by microalgae II. CO2/O2 gas exchange system. CELSS J., 7, 29-34 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: microalgae; CO2/O2 gas exchange system; regenerative life support system
Strain(s): 39 

Suzuki, S., Tazawa, R., Miya, A., Adachi, T., Kanki, R., Toyobe, M., Oguchi, M. 1994 Gas revitalization by microalgae. I. Studies on species and culture condition. CELSS J., 7, 23-28 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: microalgae; Spirulina; SOT medium; culture condition; CO2/O2 gas exchange system
Strain(s): 394546 

Ohmori, K., Hirose, M., Ohmori, M. 1993 An increase in the intracellular concentration of cAMP triggers formation of an algal mat by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Plant Cell Physiol., 34, 169-171.
Keywords: cyanobacteria (blue-green algae); cyclic AMP; motility; Spirulina platensis
Strain(s): 39 

Hirano, M., Mori, H., Miura, Y., Matsunaga, N., Nakamura, N., Matsunaga, T. 1990 γ-linolenic acid production by microalgae. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 24/25, 183-191.
Keywords: g-linolenic acid; Spirulina platensis; green algae; lipid; marine microalgae
Strain(s): 39 

Ohmori, K., Ohmori, M. 1988 Ammonium assimilation in the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Jpn. J. Phycol., 36, 12-16.
Strain(s): 39 

Asada, Y., Kawamura, S. 1986 Screening for cyanobacteria that evolve molecular hydrogen under dark and anaerobic conditions. J. Ferment. Technol., 64, 553-556.
Strain(s): 19212336394621193277 

Watanabe, M. M., Kasai, F., Hiwatari, T., Suda, S., Nei, T. 1984 Cryopreservation of microalgae in liquid nitrogen - Survival of algal cultures after freezing. Jpn. J. Freez. Dry., 30, 23-26 (in Japanese with English title).
Strain(s): 1819212426293139404144454650737475767780818788899091939598991001011201221311351371441512042072132572633794152219223522392579 

Hamana, K., Miyagawa, K., Matsuzaki, S. 1983 Occurrence of syn-homospermidine as the major polyamine in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 112, 606-613.
Strain(s): 19373921293275 

Ichimura, T., Itoh, T. 1977 17. Preservation methods of microalgae (I) [17. Bisaisôrui no hozonhô (I)]. In Preservation methods of microorganisms [Biseibutsu Hozonhô], Ed. by Nei, T., University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, p. 355-373 (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 19212223242728303132333436373839404144454647484950122123127131144152173175179180181182183185198200203206217226227241266267268271295309310334338379436448450455527 

Watanabe, M. M. 1977 Biosystematics in Closterium of sexual unicellular green algae and Calothrix and Spirulina of asexual filamentous blue-green algae, with special reference to the analyses of natural populations. Thesis D. Sci., Hokkaido University, 114 pp., 28 tables, 54 figs.
Strain(s): 3945465152535455565758596061626364656667686970261262266268 

Watanabe, M. M., Ichimura, T. 1977 Fresh- and salt-water forms of Spirulina platensis in axenic cultures. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Phycol., 25, Suppl. (Mem. Iss. Yamada), 371-377.
Strain(s): 394546 

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