Strain number NIES-227  
Phylum Chlorophyta  
Class Trebouxiophyceae  
Scientific name Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck var. vulgaris  
Synonym -----  
Former name  
Common name  
Locality (Date of collection) Japan (-----)  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source)  
History < IAM (1983);  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Watanabe, Atsushi (-----)  
Identified by Fukushima, Hiroshi; Confirmed at NIES by DNA sequencing  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Axenic[2014 Feb.]  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  C (agar)  
Temperature:  20 (25) C
Light intensity:  4-10 (15-19) µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  3 M (14 D)  
Gene information 16S rRNA ( AJ242754 AJ242771 ) , 18S rRNA ( AJ242756 AB488575 ) , 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ( AB162910 ) , 28S rRNA ( AB237642 ) , CO1 ( D63763 AB011523 ) , psaA ( AB260919 ) , rbcL ( AB260909 )  
Cell size (min - max) 2 - 10 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics  
Other strain no. Other collection strain no. : IAM C-30
 
Remarks Cryopreserved 
Movie  
Reference
Suzuki, N., Sanada, T., Terashima, C., Suzuki, T., Arai, T., Saitou, S., Kawashima, T., Mizutani, A., Saitou, T., Nakata, K., Katsumata, K., Kondo, T., Yuasa, M., Fujishima, A. 2017 Systematic studies of TiO2-based photocatalysts anti-algal effects on Chlorella vulgaris. J. Appl. Electrochem., 47, 197-203.
Keywords: Titanium dioxide; Photocatalyst; Anti-algal effect; Hydrogen peroxide
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1007/s10800-016-1031-4

Shen, X.F., Liu, J.J., Chauhan, A. S., Hu, H., Ma, L.L., Lam, P. K.S., Zeng, R. J. 2016 Combining nitrogen starvation with sufficient phosphorus supply for enhanced biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris fed on acetate. Algal Research, 17, 261-267.
Keywords: Heterotrophic cultivation; Lipid productivity; Biodiesel; Microalgae; Nutrient regulation; pH control
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2016.05.018

Shen, XF., Chu, FF., Lam P. K.S., Zeng, R. J. 2015 Biosynthesis of high yield fatty acids from Chlorella vulgaris NIES-227 under nitrogen starvation stress during heterotrophic cultivation. Water Res., 81, 294-300.
Keywords: Microalgae; Nitrogen starvation; Heterotrophic cultivation; Fatty acid content; Fatty acid yield; Glucose
Strain(s): 227 
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.06.003

Ioki, M., Ohkoshi, M., Nakajima, N., Nakahira-Yanaka, Y., Watanabe, M. M. 2012 Isolation of herbicide-resistant mutants of Botryococcus braunii. Biores. Technol., 109, 300-303.
Keywords: Botryococcus braunii; Paraquat; Methyl viologen; Basta; Glufosinate
Strain(s): 351192272302235 
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.101

Ueda, H., Otsuka, S., Senoo, K. 2010 Bacterial communities constructed in artificial consortia of bacteria and Chlorella vulgaris. Microbes. Environ., 25, 36-40.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; algal-bacterial association; bacteria; co-cultivation; consortium
Strain(s): 227 

Kato, Y., Imamura, N., 2008 Effect of calcium ion on uptake of amino acids by symbiotic Chlorella F36-ZK isolated from Japanese Paramecium bursaria. Plant Sci., 174, 88-96.
Keywords: Paramecium bursaria; Chlorella; Calcium; Divalent cation; Amino acid transport; Symbiosis
Strain(s): 22721572540 

Hoshina, R., Imamura, N. 2008 Eu-Chlorella large subunit rDNA sequences and group I introns in ribosomal DNA of the paramecian symbiotic alga NC64A. Phycol. Res., 56, 21-32.
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; group I intron; intron phylogeny; intron transposition; large subunit ribosomal DNA; NC64A
Strain(s): 227 

Kato, Y., Ueno, S., Imamura, N. 2006 Studies on the nitrogen utilization of endosymbiotic algae isolated from Japanese Paramecium bursaria. Plant Sci., 170, 481-486.
Keywords: Endosymbiont; Paramecium bursaria; Nitrogen utilization; Chlorella
Strain(s): 22725402541 

Shitanda, I., Takada, K., Sakai, Y., Tatsuma, T. 2005 Compact amperometric algal biosensors for the evaluation of water toxicity. Anal. Chim. Acta, 530, 191-197.
Keywords: amperometric biosensor; Chlorella vulgaris; algae; alginate gel; polyion complex; herbicides
Strain(s): 227 

Oshimi, M., Fujimoto, N., Ohnishi, A., Suzuki, M., Akiba, M., Kunikane, S. 2005 Isolation of bacteria lysing musty odor producing alga Phormidium tenue and its lytic characteristics. J. Jpn. Soc. Wat. Environ., 28, 379-384 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: alga-lytic bacteria; musty odor; Phormidium tenue; Pseudomonas KA6
Strain(s): 96211227244298512817 

Sato, R., Fujishima, H., Itabashi, Y. 2003 Analysis of algal phosphatidylglycerols by chiral phase high-performane liquid chromatography. Bull. Fish. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 54, 7-12 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: phosphatidylglycerol; diastereomer; Enteromorpha sp.; Chlorella vulgaris; Heterosigma akashiwo; spinach; parsley; green tea; chiral phase HPLC; 3,5-dinitrophenylurethane
Strain(s): 227 

Ando, T., Otsuka, S., Nishiyama, M., Sendo, K., Watanabe, M. M., Matsumoto, S. 2003 Toxic effects of dichloromethane and trichloroethlene on the growth of planktonic green algae, Chlorella vulgaris NIES227, Selenastrum capricornutum NIES35, and Volvulina steinii NIES545. Microbes. Environ., 18, 43-46.
Keywords: algal growth potential (AGP); bioindicator; dichloromethane; organic solvents; trichloroethlene
Strain(s): 35227545 

Mori, F., Erata, M., Watanabe, M. M. 2002 Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria and green algae in the NIES-Collection. Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 18, 45-55.
Keywords: cryopreservation; cyanobacteria; green algae; FDA staining method; NIES-Collection
Strain(s): 19212223242526272829303132333435363738394041444546505152535455565758596061626364656667686970737475767778798081878990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112119120122123124125127128129130131132133134135137138139144147148150151152153154155156157158159160162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183185186187188189191192193194195197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217224226227228229230231232241242243244245246248257259261262263266267268271287288289290294295297298299300301302303305306308309310311312313329334336337338339340341342349351359360361362375378379380382384385390394396397398415416418419421422423424425426427428429430431432433434436437438439440446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460464468469474478479480481503504505506507509510512514515522523524527528529530531532536537538539540541542543544545546564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585592593594595596597598604610628630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667672685686687688689690691692693694717718719720721722723724725726727728729 

Kuramoto, T., Iwamoto, K., Izumi, M., Kirihata, M., Yoshizako, F. 1999 Asymmetric reduction of ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate by Chlorella. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 63, 598-601.
Keywords: Chlorella; asymmetric reduction; ethyl 2-methyl 3-oxobutanoate; (2S, 3S)-ethyl 2-methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate; (2S, 3R)-ethyl 2-methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate
Strain(s): 226227 

Inagaki, Y., Ehara, M., Watanabe, K. I., Hayashi-Ishimaru, Y., Ohama, T. 1998 Directionally evolving genetic code: the UGA codon from stop to tryptophan in mitochondria. J. Mol. Evol., 47, 378-384.
Keywords: COXI phylogenetic tree; UGA codon; deviant genetic code; directional codon reassignment
Strain(s): 12227274 

Watanabe, K. I., Ehara, M., Inagaki, Y., Ohama, T. 1998 Distinctive origins of group I introns found in the COXI genes of three green algae. Gene, 213, 1-7.
Keywords: Group I intron; Chlorella vulgaris; Scenedesmus quadricauda; Protosiphon botryoides; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I; intron homing; frameshift
Strain(s): 96227 

Hayashi-Ishimaru, Y., Ohama, T., Kawatsu, Y., Nakamura, K., Osawa, S. 1996 UAG is a sense codon in several chlorophycean mitochondria. Curr. Genet., 30, 29-33.
Keywords: deviant genetic code; COXI; Chlorophyceaen mitochondria; release factor
Strain(s): 96209227415 

Liu, C. B., Lin, L. P., Su, Y. C. 1996 Utilization of Chlorella vulgaris for uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. J. Chin. Agr. Chem. Soc., 34, 331-343 (in Chinese with English summary).
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; heavy metals; nitrogen; phosphorus
Strain(s): 227 

Nozaki, H., Katagiri, M., Nakagawa, M., Aizawa, K., Watanabe, M. M. 1995 Taxonomic re-examination of the two strains labeled Chlorella in the Microbial Culture Collection at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-Collection). Microbiol. Cult. Coll., 11, 11-18.
Keywords: Chlorella; Graesiella emersonii comb. nov.; green algae; morphology; taxonomy
Strain(s): 226227686687688689690 

Kasai, F., Hatakeyama, S. 1993 Herbicide susceptibility in two green algae, Chlorella vulgaris and Selenastrum capricornutum. Chemosphere, 27, 899-904.
Strain(s): 35227 

Morimoto, T., Murakami, N., Nagatsu, A., Sakakibara, J. 1993 Studies on glycolipids. VII. Isolation of two new sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols from the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 41, 1545-1548.
Keywords: sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG); glyceroglycolipid; green alga; Chlorella vulgaris; branched fatty acid
Strain(s): 227 

Watanabe, Y., Ohmura, N., Saiki, H. 1992 Microbial CO2 fixation. 2. Isolation and determination of cultural characteristics of Chlorella strains which function under CO2 enriched atmosphere. CRIEPI Kenkyû-Hôkoku, U92014, 1-21 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: climate change; CO2; CO2 fixation; microalgae; Chlorella
Strain(s): 27459294122158204226227 

Omura, T., Umita, T., Aizawa, J., Komatsu, Y., Ishizaki, M., Onuma, M. 1991 Accumulation of extracellular non-volatile organic acids in batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa. Jpn. J. Water Poll. Res., 14, 615-623 (in Japanese with English summary).
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris; Microcystis aeruginosa; batch culture; non-volatile organic acids; dissolved organic carbon
Strain(s): 87227 

Yoshizako, F., Nishimura, A., Chubachi, M., Horii, T., Ueno, T. 1991 Bioconversion of cyclohexaneacetic acid to monohydroxycyclo-hexaneacetic acids by Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 72, 343-346.
Strain(s): 226227 

Kawanobe, K. 1990 A report in the completion of the research work [Chôsa kenkyû syûryô hôkoku]. Unpublished report in Kankyô Hozen Kyôkai, 3 pp. (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 35227 

Iehara, M. 1990 Kinetic analysis of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Biotech. Bioeng., 36, 198-206.
Strain(s): 227 

Ubekôsan Co. Ltd. 1988 Effects of UR-158 on the algal mortality [UR-158 no sassôkôka]. Unpublished report in Ubekôsan Co. Ltd, 3 pp. (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 32227 

Yamada, T., Sakaguchi, K. 1982 Comparative studies on Chlorella cell walls: Induction of protoplast formation. Arch. Mikrobiol., 132, 10-13.
Strain(s): 2276862159216321662168217121892352 

Oh-hama, T., Senger, H. 1978 Spectral effectiveness in chlorophyll and 5-amino levulinic acid formation during regreening of glucose-bleached cells of Chlorella protothecoides. Plant Cell Physiol., 19, 1295-1299.
Keywords: ALA synthesis; blue light effect; Chlorella protothecoides; chlorophyll formation
Strain(s): 227 

Ichimura, T., Itoh, T. 1977 17. Preservation methods of microalgae (I) [17. Bisaisôrui no hozonhô (I)]. In Preservation methods of microorganisms [Biseibutsu Hozonhô], Ed. by Nei, T., University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, p. 355-373 (in Japanese without English title).
Strain(s): 19212223242728303132333436373839404144454647484950122123127131144152173175179180181182183185198200203206217226227241266267268271295309310334338379436448450455527 

Maruyama, K. 1977 Classification of Chlorella strain by infrared absorption spectra of cell samples. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 90, 67-77.
Strain(s): 2262276856872151216321702175 

Maruyama, K. 1977 Classification of Chlorella strains by cell appearance and group sera. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 90, 57-66.
Strain(s): 2262276852151216321702175 

Watanabe, A. 1960 List of algal strains in collection at the Institute of Applied Microbiology, University of Tokyo. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 6, 283-292.
Strain(s): 192122232425262829374749226227 

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