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Strain number NIES-1332  
Phylum Rhodophyta  
Class Cyanidiophyceae  
Scientific name Cyanidioschyzon merolae De Luca, Taddei & Varano  
Synonym  
Former name  
Common name Red alga  
Locality (Date of collection) Sardinia Isl. Italy  
Latitude / Longitude  
Habitat (Isolation source) Hot spring (Water)  
History < Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi  
Isolator (Date of isolation) Toda, Kyoko  
Identified by  
State of strain Cryopreservation; Unialgal; Clonal; Non-axenic  
Culture condition
(Preculture condition)
Medium:  M-Allen  
Temperature:  37 C
Light intensity:  10-11 µmol photons/m2/sec, L/D cycle:  10L:14D
Duration:  6 M  
Gene information Mitochondria DNA ( D89861 ) , Nuclear DNA (chromosome 1-20) ( AP006483-AP006502 ) , Plastid DNA ( AB002583 ) , aladh ( AB159599 ) , atpC ( AB159600 ) , gnd ( AB159595 AB159596 ) , Hsp70 ( AB095185 ) , Hsp90 ( AB095179 AB095186 ) , pgk ( AB159598 ) , psbO ( AB159597 ) , RPB1 ( AB095180 AB095187 ) , RpS8b ( AB095181 AB095188 ) , TPI ( AB095182 AB095189 ) , VatA ( AB095183 AB095190 ) , VatB ( AB095184 AB095191 )  
Cell size (min - max) - 4 μm  
Organization Unicellular 
Characteristics Autotrophic ; Planktonic ; Acidophilic ; Thermophilic ; Genome decoded strain  
Other strain no. Other strain no. : 10D  
Remarks Unavailable; NIES-3377 is available. 
Movie  
Reference
Zienkiewicz, M., Krupnik, T., Drożak, A., Golke, A., Romanowska, E. 2017 Transformation of the Cyanidioschyzon merolae chloroplast genome: prospects for understanding chloroplast function in extreme environments. Plant Mol. Biol., 93, 171-183.
Keywords: Stable chloroplast transformation; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; PEG; Biolistic bombardment
Strain(s): 1332 
DOI: 10.1007/s11103-016-0554-8

Loganathan, N., Tsai, YC., Mueller-Cajar, O. 2016 Characterization of the heterooligomeric red-type rubisco activase from red algae. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 113, 14019-1402.
Keywords: rubisco; activase; photosynthesis; AAA+ proteins; red algae
Strain(s): 1332 
PubMed: 27872295
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610758113

Takaichi, S., Yokoyama, A., Mochimaru, M., Uchida, H., Murakami, A. 2016 Carotenogenesis diversification in phylogenetic lineages of Rhodophyta. J. Phycol., 52, 329-338.
Keywords: alloxanthin; antheraxanthin; carotenogenesis; carotenoid; Cryptophyta; Glaucophyta; lutein; red algae; Rhodophyta; Zeaxanthin
Strain(s): 697700705133221372138 
PubMed: 27273528
DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12411

Rahman, D. Y, Sarian, F. D., van WijkM, A., Martinez-Garcia, M., van der Maarel, M. J. E. C. 2016 Thermostable phycocyanin from the red microalga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, a new natural blue food colorant. J. Appl. Phycol., ,
Keywords: Food colorant; Phycocyanin; Pigments; Red microalga; Cyanidioschyzon merolae
Strain(s): 1332 
DOI: 10.1007/s10811-016-1007-0

Krupnik, T., Kotabová, E., van Bezouwen, L. S., Mazur, R., Garstka, M., Nixon, P. J., Barber, J., Kaňa, R., Boekema, E. J., Kargul, J. 2013 A reaction center-dependent photoprotection mechanism in a highly robust photosystem II from an extremophilic red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae. J. Biol. Chem., 288, 23529-23542.
Strain(s): 1332 
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.484659

Miyagishima, S., Suzuki, K., Okazaki, K., Kabeya, Y. 2012 Expression of the nucleus-encoded chloroplast division genes and proteins regulated by the algal cell cycle. Mol. Biol. Evol., 29, 2957-2970.
Keywords: cell cycle; chloroplast division; endosymbiosis; endosymbiotic gene transfer
Strain(s): 296484547133221703377 
PubMed: 22490821
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mss102

Ohnuma, M., Kuroiwa, T., Tanaka, K. 2011 Optimization of cryopreservation conditions for the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. J. Gen. Appl. Micobiol.,, 57, 137-143.
Keywords: cryoinjury; cryopreservation; Cyanidioschyzon merolae; unicellular red alga
Strain(s): 13323377 

Takaichi, S. 2011 Carotenoids in algae: distributions, biosyntheses and functions. Mar. Drugs, 9, 1101-1118.
Keywords: algal phylogeny; biosynthesis of carotenoids; distribution of carotenoids; function of carotenoids; pigment-protein complex
Strain(s): 14413323377 
DOI: 10.3390/md9061101

Nozaki, H., Takano, H., Misumi, O., Terasawa, K., Matsuzaki, M., Maruyama, S., Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Yoshida, Y., Fujiwara, T., Takio, S., Tamura, K., Chung, S. J., Nakamura, S., Kuroiwa, H., Tanaka, K., Sato, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2007 A 100%-complete sequence reveals unusually simple genomic features in the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. BMC Biol., 5, 28 (article ID).
Strain(s): 13323377 
DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-5-28

Cunningham, Jr., F. X., Lee, H., Gantt, E. 2007 Carotenoid biosynthesis in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Eukaryot. Cell, 6, 533-545.
Strain(s): 13323377 

Hamana, K., Niitsu, M. 2006 Cellular polyamines of lower eukaryotes belonging to the phyla Glaucophyta, Rhodophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyta and Percolozoa. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 52, 235-240.
Keywords: Cryptophyta; Glaucophyta; Haptophyta; Perclozoa; polyamine; Rhodophyta
Strain(s): 827427627728235338869970671574176376410161017103210361332144114561457146214631467147315163377 

Nozaki, H., Matsuzaki, M., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Higashiyama, T., Kuroiwa, T. 2005 Phylogenetic implications of the CAD complex from the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae (Cyanidiales, Rhodophyta). J. Phycol., 41, 652-657.
Keywords: CAD complex; evolution; phylogeny; red algae; pyrimidine biosynthetic cluster
Strain(s): 13323377 

Matsuzaki, M., Misumi, O., Shin-i, T., Maruyama, S., Takahara, M., Miyagishima, S., Mori, T., Nishida, K., Yagisawa, F., Nishida, K., Yoshida, Y., Nishimura, Y., Nakao, S., Kobayashi, T., Momoyama, Y., Higashiyama, T., Minoda, A., Sano, M., Nomoto, H., Oishi, K., Hayashi, H., Ohta, F., Nishizaka, S., Haga, S., Miura, S., Morishita, T., Kabeya, Y., Terasawa, K., Suzuki, Y., Ishii, Y., Asakawa, S., Takano, H., Ohta, N., Kuroiwa, H., Tanaka, K., Shimizu, N., Sugano, S., Sato, N., Nozaki, H., Ogasawara, N., Kohara, Y., Kuroiwa, T. 2004 Genome sequence of the ultrasmall unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae 10D. Nature, 428, 653-657.
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 15071595
DOI: 10.1038/nature02398

Nozaki, H., Matsuzaki, M., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Hasegawa, M., Higashiyama, T., Shin-i, T., Kohara, Y., Ogasawara, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2004 Cyanobarterial genes transmitted to the nucleus before divergence of red algae in the Chromista. J. Mol. Evol., 59, 103-113.
Keywords: Chromista; cyanobacterial nuclear genes; phylogeny; plastids; primary endosymbiosis; secondary endosymbiosis
Strain(s): 13323377 

Ohta, N., Matsuzaki, M., Misumi, O., Miyagishima, S., Nozaki, H., Tanaka, K., Shin-I, T., Kohara, Y., Kuroiwa, T. 2003 Complete sequence and analysis of the plastid genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. DNA Res., 10, 67-77.
Keywords: Cyanidioschyzon merolae; red algae; plastid; genome sequencing
Strain(s): 13323377 
PubMed: 12755171
DOI: 10.1093/dnares/10.2.67

Nozaki, H., Matsuzaki, M., Takahara, M., Misumi, O., Kuroiwa, H., Hasegawa, M., Shin-i, T., Kohara, Y., Ogasawara, N., Kuroiwa, T. 2003 The phylogenetic position of red algae revealed by multiple nuclear genes from mitochondria-containing eukaryotes and an alternative hypothesis on the origin of plastids. J. Mol. Evol., 56, 485-497.
Keywords: eukaryotes; evolution; nuclear genes; outgroup; phylogeny; plantae; plastid; protein-coding genes; red algae
Strain(s): 13323377 

Ohta, N., Sato, N., Kuroiwa, T. 1998 Structure and organization of the mitochondrial genome of the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae deduced from the complete nucleotide sequence. Nucleic Acids Res., 26, 5190-5198.
Strain(s): 13323377 
DOI: 10.1093/nar/26.22.5190

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